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rheCreatK>cVv)oman 




WOMEN IN THE PERFORMING ARTS 



WINTER 1985 




Vol. 7, No. 2 Winter 1985 



f The 
, Creatine 
Ionian 



Governors State University, University Park, IL 60466-3193 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE PROVOST'S OFFICE, © GOVERNORS STATE UNIVERSITY AND HELEN HUGHES 
ISSN 0736-4733 



STAFF 

Helen E. Hughes, Editor 

Joan Barchard Lewis, Managing Editor 

John Ostenburg, Editorial Consultant 

Suzanne Oliver, Art Director 

Janet Green , Editorial Assistant 

Karen Degenhart, Editorial Assistant 



ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Donna Bandstra, Social Sciences 

Margaret Brady, Journalism 

Rev. Ellen Dohner Livingston, Religion 

Rita Durrant, League of American Penu/omen 

Harriet Gross, Sociology /Woman's Studies 

Helene Guttman, Biological Sciences 

Young Kim, Communications Science 

Harriet Marcus Gross, Journalism 

Betye Saar, Fine Arts 

Sara Shumer, Political Theory 

Emily Wasiolek, Literature 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Introduction by John A. Ostenburg 

In Tribute to Martha Graham: Her Impact as Woman/ Artist 

by Lynntia Kirstimon 
Ida Borchard, Indomitable Dancer at 90 by Ursula Sklan 
Artists in Progress: Three Women in Dance by Joan Lewis 
Jan Erkert 
Kate Kuper 
Amy Osgood 

Margie Adam, Songwriter: The Uses of Fantasy by Mary S. Pollock 
Selected American Women Composers by Joseph P. Cirou 

My Brother Comes Home An Interview with Terry O'Neill by Karen Degenhart 
Focus On: Sharon Couzin by Julie Laffin 
Random Reflections On An Anthology by Temmie Gilbert 
Fear-y Tales: A Performance Art Program by Susan Bass Marcus 
Poetry by Olivia Diamond 
Poetry by Christine Beregi 
Poetry by Christine Beregi 
Poetry by Christine Beregi 
Poetry by K. Paula Bonham 
In A Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development/Carole Gilligan 

A Review by ,Charles Saltzman 
Letters to the Editor 
Editor's Column by Helen E. Hughes 



The Creative Woman is published three times a year by Gover- 
nors State University. We focus on a special topic in each issue, 
presented from a feminist perspective. We celebrate the creative 
achievements of women in many fields and appeal to inquiring 
minds. We publish fiction, poetry, book reviews, articles, 
photography and original graphics. 



Cover photographs of Martha Graham by Barbara 
Morgan from the collection of Arnie & Temmie Gilbert 





There is a vitality, a life force, a quickening that is translated through you into action, 
and because there is only one of you in all time, this expression is unique. And if you 
block it, it will never exist through any other medium and be lost. The world will not 
have it. It is not your business to determine how good it is: nor how valuable it is; nor 
how it compares with other expressions. It is your business to keep it yours clearly and 
directly, to keep the channel open. You do not even have to believe in yourself or your 
work. You have to keep open and aware directly to the urges that motivate YOU. 
Keep the channel open. . . No artist is pleased. . . There is no satisfaction whatever at 
any time. There is only a queer, divine dissatisfaction; a blessed unrest that keeps us 
marching and makes us more alive than the others. 



Martha Graham to Agnes DeMille ON CREATIVITY. 

Source unknown— quoted by Marilyn Barrett in The Blue Sky Journal Vol. #6 

November 1, 1984. 



The editors of TCW dedicate this issue to Martha Graham, not only because she is the 
preeminent performing artist of today, but more importantly because she is exemplary 
of those who cause the intangible objects of art to appear in movement before our eyes. 
Unlike others who are creative, the performing artist leaves no hard items to read and 
re-read, to touch and re-touch, to see and re-see. The movements of the body in dance, 
for example, are elements of art captured in one specific moment of time — even when 
film and videotape make meager efforts to preserve the artistry for later viewers. Mar- 
tha Graham, then, is the named recipient of this dedication, but she represents those 
numerous unnamed artists who share the excitement of their performances with those 
of us who observe. 

JAO 







PROFILE 






IN TRIBUTE TO 
MARTHA GRAHAM: HER 
IMPACT AS WOMAN-ARTIST 

by Lynntia Kirstimon 

In this her 90th year, Martha Graham, one of 
the prime movers of modern dance, still presents 
to the world of the contemporary woman the 
epitome of creative growth and freedom. In her 



dance, teaching, acting and choreography she 
stands for what it means to have courage and 
strength. She persisted in the demonstration of 
an innovative talent in a society that often 
undervalues the achievements of women. For a 
long time female artists had been forced to pre- 
sent their material in typical masculine format, 
just as writers, in order to make themselves visi- 
ble, wrote under assumed names. But now it is 
possible for women in the arts to express 
themselves and explore their media without such 



hindrances. While the early modern dance 
figures have not been generally recognized as 
catalysts, Martha Graham and her generation 
had a forceful impact in this development. Ms. 
Graham was an outstanding pioneer in opening 
the entire creative panorama for women. 
Ms. Graham is credited with developing a 
technique which has unquestionably produced 
changes in the art of dance and creating dances, 
influencing current choreographers who initially 
performed with her company, such as Paul 
Taylor, Erik Hawkins and Merce Cunningham, 
and all who followed. She initiated changes in 
costume design (through her own designing) and 
in set design and music through collaboration 
with such artists as Noguchi and Horst. She has 
produced a huge volume of choreographed 
works. In her 90th year, this unique woman will 
this season premiere two new pieces and is also 
in the process of attempting to document her 
works through film. 

As early as 1926, Ms. Graham began her career 
as an independent artist, having come from the 
Denishawn Company and then a teaching posi- 
tion at the Eastman School. Present at a time of 
great flux when intense changes were occurring 
in the art world, she was able to relate to the in- 
fluence of the Expressionist movement. She 
managed to form her own company and develop 
the respected Martha Graham School of Con- 
temporary Dance. 

Until Ms. Graham and a handful of others had 
the tenacity to brave the male-dominated sphere 
of theatre production, the role of women was 
quite different. Woman had emerged from scant 
participation on the stage to a point in the 19th 
century of dominating the performance. 
However, her role was kept to that of ballerina, 
and of a female figure that portrayed the essence 
of Romantic Idealism. She embodied ethereal, 
diaphanous sylphs, fairy tale characters and dolls 
in such ballets as Cinderella, Swan Lake, Cop- 
pelia, Giselle, The Sleeping Beauty. The "white 
ballets" abounded, and she danced all in pinks 
and softness. The male role had become that of 
an extra, primarily for support of the female 
figure. 

The first initiators appeared shortly after 1900. 
Isadora Duncan, Ruth St. Denis and others 
began searching for expressive freedom through 
dance forms that were not yet present. Duncan's 
images of freedom resulted in a search for 
natural movement, and she turned to the early 
Greeks for inspiration. St. Denis turned to the 
Orient, exploring exotic goddesses and a 
religious view of dance. These early founders 
discovered the need for change, but the genera- 
tion which followed actualized these changes. 
Although Duncan made innovative use of 



music, costuming and technique, she was still in- 
volved in a form of romanticism in her dance. 
St. Denis did not develop a technique, but 
through the formation of the Denishawn Com- 
pany she fostered innovators who would follow. 
Martha Graham was included in this influential 
group. This generation went several steps fur- 
ther, exploring through their newly creative 
medium not only the beauty, but the intensity 
of soul, personal experience and self. They 
shunned the romantic glorification of female 
helplessness and powerlessness, and there ensued 
a "long woolens" period in which slippers and 
pretty pink costumes disappeared. They 
discovered new vocabularies, new drama and 
theatre, and were clearly involved in fostering 
the establishment of this new art form through 
training and management skills and involvement 
in education (such as at Bennington College). 
Among the daring women progenitors in these 
developmental periods were Doris Humphrey, 
Mary Wigman, Agnes DeMille, Loie Fuller, 
Hanya Holm, Pauline Koner, Helen Tamaris, 
Pearl Lange and Sophie Maslow. 

Historically, it seems important to note that 
those who brought forth these changes in dance 
were overwhelmingly women. But of perhaps 
greater importance is that they developed a new 
art form in dance and new roles for women and 
men in a way in which the joys and pains of 
self-discovery as whole beings within their art 
were explored; they not only retained their 
femaleness but displayed and explored it as part 
of the process of creation. 
Graham in particular seems to have had the 
capacity for exploring new facets of both in- 
dividuality and art form. She presents her 
essence as woman in the theatre she created, her 
female characters and archetypal figures emerg- 
ing and re-emerging in her pieces, sometimes ex- 
ploring the many women encompassed within 
one figure. Among the women whose lives and 
characters she explored were: Medea, Joan of 
Arc, Clytemnestra, Mary Queen of Scots, the 
biblical Judith, Emily Dickenson, the Bronte 
sisters. Her female figures are themselves inter- 
woven with the trials of self-discovery. Arlene 
Croce in "After Images" has noted, "No 
Graham heroine dies unilluminated. The dif- 
ference between her and the fated heroines of 
nineteenth century ballet— a Giselle or an 
Odette— is that the Graham heroine possesses, 
herself, the key to her mystery." Ms. Graham's 
themes are explorations of humanness and self, 
social commentary and ritual. She delved into 
Greek myth and Americana, and her characters 
portrayed human potential, tragedy, sexuality, 
conflict, death/rebirth. Within these characters 
she explored with candor and explicitness their 



beings as well as her own. 

Graham appeared at a time when both men and 
women were re-evaluating their appropriate func- 
tions as artists and persons. At a time when 
women artists were struggling toward accep- 
tance, she was establishing her new theatre. 
With so many creative women in dance at that 
time, it's quite possible that for them a kind of 
support system was produced. These women 
were all involved in a personal process of self- 
discovery and naming in a very visible medium 
(dance is this); they were exposing their very 
selves. 

Unfortunately these early women pioneers of the 
performing arts have not been appreciated fully 
nor their lives explored in the history of art, in 
particular, the coming of age for women. Not 



that it was their specific intent to participate in 
the feminist movement, but their strength and 
singular vision of artists growth allowed no hin- 
drance. 

Martha Graham, one of the few women granted 
an honorary degree from Harvard University 
and a performer who graced the stage until age 
75, had that strength. She created a defined 
technique, new vocabulary of dance, school and 
company which established and allowed her vi- 
sion to become an institution. Though very little 
of her writing is in print, her personal dance 
journals are published and her presence is felt 
through speaking appearances at her concerts. It 
is this added degree of artistic and personal self- 
disclosure which has no doubt added to her 
tremendous impact on the dance. 



Washington Peace Center 
21 11 Florida Avenue NW 
Washington DC 20008 



Look to the Women for Courage: 

Stories from the Seneca Encampment 
for Peace and Justice 



A slide presentation by JEB (Joan E. Biren) 



In 1 983 women opposed to the deployment of new first strike nuclear weapons by the U.S. 
set up a Peace Camp at the Seneca Army Depot in MY. state. This presentation brings you 
the power and determination of the thousands of women who participated in the non-violent 
direct actions of the Encampment. It also shows you their anger, fear, elation and celebra- 
tion. There are sections on the organization and functioning of the Encampment as well as 
on the threat posed by the increasing arms build-up. The slide show portrays the opening of 
the Encampment on July 4th. It traces the summer's events, with special attention on the 
large August 1st demonstration and the trial of the "Waterloo 54," and concludes with the 
civil disobedience actions on October 24th. 





PROFILE 





IDA BORCHARD, 
INDOMITABLE DANCER 
AT 90 

by Ursula Sklan 



Ida Borchard is my mother, and she just 
celebrated her 90th birthday in our Park Forest 
home. The actual date for her birthday was on 
Tuesday, October 23rd, but the party had to be 
on a Saturday night because on Tuesdays she 
teaches an evening class. Ida Borchard teaches 
Modern Dancing in a studio in Chicago's Fine 
Arts Building, on the 9th floor. The building 
suits her perfectly - it is venerable and it oozes 
with artistic activity. Sounds of many kinds of 
musical instruments permeate the atmosphere, 
voices come forth from behind closed doors and 
interesting characters use the hand-operated 
elevator. 

Ida Borchard opened her studio at age 65, when 
other people think of retiring. Two years 
previous she had accompanied me, my husband 
and daughters on our move from New York to 
the Chicago area and for the first couple of 
years she worked in Helena Rubinstein's salon as 
a dance instructor. Prior to her move to 
Chicago, she had worked for ten years in a 
slenderizing salon in New York, where her 
dance exercises were supposed to tone the body 
into losing inches. 

She trained for many years with Europe's 
famous dancer, Mary Wigman. She did much of 
her initial training before she got married and 
had children but she resumed it after I and my 
brother were born and her later teacher was 
Norwegian dancer Lilian Espenak, who has a 
studio in New York. Lilian, who must be of 
equal age, still teaches too. In fact, my husband 
and I saw her in New York recently and her 
hair was still naturally blond and her 
movements youthful. Ida's movements too are 
very fluid, as she calls it. Her energy knows no 
bounds and she never when she visits us does 
what my husband and I like to do - have a siesta 
after lunch. She almost never relaxes, which is 
strange because her exercises are supposed to 
help people relax. She has a faithful following of 
students, who include wealthy northside ladies, 
university employees who come in their lunch- 
hour, teachers, salesladies ranging from the very 
young to grandmothers. Ida is well-known in 
dance and fashion circles and attends all dance 
performances and .najor fashion shows. She has 




Ida Borchard, age 84 and granddaughter Gdlian 



performed with her star students on T.V. and 
has been published in magazines and Chicago 
newspapers. She teaches individuals and groups 
every day and two or three evenings and Satur- 
day mornings. Nor does she let up in the sum- 
mer. For many years, she has rented a cottage in 
Union Pier facing Lake Michigan's eastern 
shores and she calls it "Workshop by the Sea." 
She has a few local ladies come in for classes in 
the spacious cottage hall and several students 
come to spend the weekend with her taking 
classes. Discipline in Ida's cottage is very strict 
with almost continuous activity; when one does 
not dance one must walk for miles, which often 
includes going into the dunes. Once she took me 
and the family into the dunes and there we were 
faced with a mountain of a dune and before we 
knew, she had run up to the top while all of us 
were taking our time to get up there. 

Our two daughters have occasionally taken 
classes from her. I prefer ballroom dancing and 
folkdancing. Her English is pretty good and she 
throws in words like "derriere" for the lower 
back. She will continue dancing. Once after at- 
tending a performance of a famous dancer, she 
told us that "she danced out of this world" (her 
diction) and we are convinced that she will 
follow this idea. 



PROFILE 




ARTISTS IN PROGRESS: 
THREE WOMEN IN DANCE 

by Joan Lewis 



Jan Erkert 

After graduating cum laude with a BFA in 
dance from the University of Utah in 1973, Jan 
Erkert served a year as dancer and 
choreographer for the Christopher Ballet Com- 
pany of Rochester, Michigan, before coming to 
Chicago as a dancer for Mordine and Company. 
In her five years under the highly-respected 
Shirley Mordine, Ms. Erkert advanced to assis- 
tant director of the company and full-time 
member of the faculty of the Dance Center of 
Columbia College. In 1979, she left Mordine 
and Company and formed her own company, 
jansdances, in order to pursue her choreographic 
career. Since that time, she has twice been the 
recipient of choreographic fellowships from the 
National Endowment for the Arts, receives an- 
nual assistance grants from the Illinois Arts 
Council and the Chicago Council for Fine Arts. 
Her work has been critically acclaimed by the 
media. The company of four dancers performs 
regularly in Chicago and tours throughout the 
midwest. Ms. Erkert has been invited to 
choreograph for several companies and Univer- 
sities and in April of 1983, Mountain of Needles, 
a work choreographed for the Illinois Dance 
Theatre (Department of Dance, University of Il- 
linois/Champaign) was selected to be performed 
at the Kennedy Center, Washington, D.C. as 
part of the National College Dance Festival. 

Ms. Erkert is recognized nationally as an 
outstanding teacher. Specializing in Advanced 
Modern Technique, she has been invited to 
return as a guest artist to the University of Il- 
linois/Champaign for the past three years, and 
was a guest artist at the University of Wisconsin, 
Madison in summer, 1983. Residing in Chicago, 
Ms. Erkert teaches professional classes at Morn- 
ing Dance & Arts Center and is currently on 
the faculty of the University of Chicago. In addi- 
tion to her work with adults, Ms. Erkert has 
piloted many programs of dance for children. In 
1980, she piloted the Artist-in-Residence pro- 
gram for the Illinois Arts Council, teaching and 
performing in the community and schools of 
Bensenville, IL. She has been a movement 
specialist for the National Endowment for the 



Arts artist-in-schools program and currently 
teaches workshops throughout the Chicago 
Public Schools for Urban Gateways. 

In 1980, when she was teaching and performing 
in suburban Bensenville, Jan Erkert made an im- 
portant discovery. As she recalls: / didn't have 
any repertory to speak to the common person, to peo- 
ple who have had not background in dance. I looked 
around at the kids I was trying to teach in the 
schools, and the one thing I knew they were into was 
music. There's so much audience for pop music; I 
wanted to break into that entertainment world. I 
thought to myself: 'They've got a good racket going 
on over there. Why not get onto it, too? Why not be 
popular?' 

Out of this resolve came Erkert's 1981 work, 
"Spinning Round," a suite danced to recordings 
by the Beatles, and her current project, "Moun- 
tain of Needles," set to the Brian Eno-David 
Byrne album "My Life in the Bush of Ghosts." 

Both works illustrate Erkert's ability to blend the 
accessible and commercial with her own free- 
flowing dance movement. "Spinning Round," a 
lovely, lyrical piece danced in white, was a 
soldout hit when first presented. "Mountain" is 
a "game/dance" for three acrobat-dancer- 
performers that further expands Erkert's reach 
for new audiences through its sports imagery 
and pop music. 

Now 30, Erkert likes to say that she has been 
dancing for a quarter-century, since she started 
taking ballet lessons at the age of 4 in her native 
Detroit. At about 13, she decided, "This is what 
I want to do," but it was not until she went to 
the University of Utah in 1969 that she came in- 
to contact with modern dance. "It was terrible," 
she says, "because I didn't know how to move. I 
had a completely different ballet background. 
Everything was hard for me, which is why I can 
teach modern dance really well. 

"I had some good teachers myself at Utah, and 
in 1974, when I came to Chicago to join Mor- 
dine and Company, Shirley was very good 
because she demanded a creative imput from her 
dancers. You almost had to become a 
choreographer with her. 

"There are a lot more possibilities for dance here 
now. Then, it was either dance with Shirley 
[Mordine] or Nana [Solbrig] or else go to New 
York. But now, I figure, why not stay here? I 
have dancers and an audience. 

"I love choreography. It's like being a 
playwright. Since 1979, I've been on my own, 
and my teaching has supported my work as a 
dancer; but it takes such incredible energy, going 
from 9 in the morning until 10 at night. I want 
to go on with it, create a permanent company, 



tour nationally, perform in New York, create 
many, many dances. I've made my 
commitment." 

. . ."Arts ck Books" 
Chicago Tribune, March 21, 1982 




Kate Kuper 

KATE KUPER received her early training in 
music, visual art, writing and theatre. She began 
dancing in Cleveland, received a B.A. from 
Oberlin College in 1976, and continued study at 
the University of Illinois at Champaign in 1978. 
Kuper has been a choreographer, performer and 
teacher in the Chicago area since 1979. She 
formed her company, KATE KUPER INC., in 
1982 working with dancer Christina Ernst, musi- 
cian Johnse Holt and composer Rockv Maffit (to 
whom she is married). As artistic director, Kuper 
has choreographed for Chicago's Akasha ck Co.; 
Champaign's One Plus One; Indianapolis' Dance 



Kaleidoscope and Guitardance, a Swiss dance 
and music duo. Her own company has been 
critically acclaimed by the Chicago press and in 
Dancemagazine. Kuper served as artist-in- 
residence in Decatur, Illinois in 1982, 1983 and 
1984, and has received grants from the Illinois 
Arts Council, the Chicago Council on Fine Arts 
and Atlantic Richfield. 

Over the last eight years, I have been filling 
notebooks with ideas for dances, often by starting 
with a question. Example: "How can I make a 
dance as: (PICK ONE) provocative, touching, ex- 
citing, passionate, entertaining, inspiring, interesting, 
energetic as: (PICK ONE) Henri Matisse, Star 
Wars, Gertrude Stein, Balinese ritual, traffic pat- 
terns, social behavior, Chicago architecture, 20th 
century abstract art, doowap, light sculpture, halo 
Calvino, Liza Minnelli, YoYo Ma, Brian Eno, 
Carder -Bresson. . ." 

I am attracted to good taste, craftsmanship, depth of 
feeling, energy and intuition wherever it may be 
found. I make art that reflects my urban origins. I 
love the audio/visual landscape of city life— an art- 
fully weather-beaten billboard, a fascinating con- 
figuration of architectural shapes and lines, a jux- 
taposition of people and objects, a splash of spray 
paint on a drab wall, a piece of beautifully rusted 
metal, a fire engine's wail heard over church bells. 

I end up making dances which allude to all sorts of 
"non-dance" imagery. I can't help it; I'm an artist 
who chose dance (or was chosen by dance, depending 
on your view of human destiny). I love to cram a 
dance full of images, like flash cards, no sooner seen 
than gone, leaving the audience with plenty to think 
about. Since I want my audience to enjoy the array, 
I'll structure it accordingly, with a beginning, middle 
and end. I'll have music created for it that reinforces 
the moods and changes of the piece. And I'll costume 
it so that the character and visual impression of the 
piece is left clean and unencumbered. 

Dance is a performing art. I strive to entertain art- 
fully, either by doing something the audience has 
never seen before, by interpreting an idea in a fresh 
way, or by sharing a "fellow-feeling", creating an 
alliance between audience and performer. 

From time to time I have succumbed to fashions in 
art, but ever since I got anti-humanistic "punk" art 
out of my system, I've been trying to counterbalance 
that particular trend by making art with a sense of 
warmth, comedy, intelligence and honesty. I feel it's 
the least I can do to keep us out of nuclear war. 





Amy Osgood 

Osgood Dances, Inc. is a five member, contem- 
porary dance company based in Chicago. 
Through the choreography of the company's 
founder and artistic director Amy Osgood, 
Osgood Dances, Inc. aims to increase awareness 
and appreciation of this changing art 
form— locally, nationally, and eventually abroad. 

Born and raised in Illinois, Amy Osgood moved 
West in 1971 to attend the University of Utah 
where she received a B.F.A., magna cum laude, 
in Modern Dance. Upon graduating, Ms. 
Osgood settled in Chicago where she became a 
member of Mordine and Company from 1975 
through 1977. The following year, she founded 
Osgood Dance, Inc., to foster her choreographic 
endeavors. Since then, her achievements include 
the establishment of a performance company 
and the creation of original works for solo artists 
and dance companies such as The Chicago 
Repertory Dance Ensemble, Jansdances and the 
University of Montana Student Dance Com- 
pany. Ms. Osgood is also on the faculty of 
Morning Dance and Arts Center in Chicago, 
and serves on the Illinois Arts Council's 
Creative Artists' Division/Dance. 



To date, Osgood Dances, Inc. has received 
numerous Illinois Arts Council grants, a 1983 
City Arts grant from the Chicago Council on 
Fine Arts, and a National Endowment for the 
Arts Regional Touring grant for 1984-1985. In 
addition, the Illinois Arts Council selected 
Osgood Dances, Inc. to be one of seven com- 
panies to participate in its Artstour '84, '85. 
Finally, Ms. Osgood herself, has received 
choreographic fellowships from the National En- 
dowment for the Arts in 1982, 1983, and 1984, 
and two from the Illinois Arts Council in 1983, 
1984. 

Amy describes her latest work, "Dancing on Earth" 
which premiered in June 1984 in Chicago. Ap- 
preciating the beauty of everyday life— love, children, 
work and play— and contemplating its nuclear 
destruction forms the theme of this neu et ening- 
length work. 

"Dancing on Earth" celebrates— and even 
parodies— aspects of everyday life: the drudgery of 
work, the delight of pets, the fidfillmcnt of friend- 
ship, the comfort of home and solitude. But just as 
global tensions occasionally shake us from the reverie 
of daily life, choreographic snippets of reality in- 
terweave the production's domestic vignettes. 





CRITICISM-MUSIC 





MARGIE ADAM 
SONGWRITER: 
The Uses of Fantasy 

by Mary S. Pollock 

"Fantasy," writes Ursula K. Le Guin, is "the 
language of the inner self." 1 Few feminist critics 
would disagree that gender has much to do with 
organization of the self— that the woman writer 
inhabits a world different from the world of 
men, that she speaks a somewhat different 
language, and that she makes a different use of 
received forms. Books, articles, and well-attended 
MLA sessions on genre and gender have ex- 
plored these differences, and a recent issue of 
Critical Inquiry has been devoted to the subject. 2 
Nowhere are the differences between male and 
female treatments of literary form more striking 
than in the literature of fantasy. 

Margie Adam. Songwriter revises the genre of fan- 
tasy in ways which are, I believe, typical of 
women's fantasy. This record album, produced 
on the women's independent label Pleiades, 
treats passion above action, and its plot balances 
a journey into the self with re-integration into 
the external world. Although a record album 
lends itself naturally to the lyrical rather than 
the dramatic and to an evenly balanced rather 
than a steeply structured plot, these very 
possibilities and limitations are particularly con- 
genial to women's fantasy. 3 Because a record 
album is more condensed, immediate, and ac- 
cessible than a written text, Margie Adam's 
work provides a clear and useful paradigm for 
examining other fantasy literature by women, for 
exploring the ways in which other women 
writers have shaped a literary tradition into their 
own meanings. 

W.H. Auden calls fantasy "a literary mimesis of 
our subjective experience." 4 Both critics and 
writers of fantasy agree that it differs from other 
art forms in its direct appeal to the atavistic im- 
agination, its origin in subjectivity, and its indif- 
ference to the ordinary constraints of time and 
space. In an essay on Tolkien, Le Guin writes 
that "fantasy is the natural, the appropriate, 
language for the recounting of the spiritual 
journey" 5 because it is the language of instinct: 

It is the animal who knows the way, the way 

home. 

It is the animal within us, the primitive, the 

dark brother, the shadow soul, who is the 

guide. 6 
Le Guin suggests that the distinctive feature of 
fantasy is its reference to instinct and emotion, 



which are not bound by rules of space and time. 
Tolkien concurs. Fantasy, he writes in "On 
Fairy Tales," satisfies 
certain primordial human desires. One of these 
desires is to survey the depths of space and 
time. Another is to hold communion with 
other living things. 7 
Such literature, he continues, enables us to 
open a door on Other Time, and if we pass 
through, though only for a moment, we stand 
outside our own time, outside Time itself, 
maybe. 8 
Eric Rabkin identifies the same feature of fantasy 
in a book-length essay, The Fantastic in 
Literature: 
Most fantasies are atavistic, they harken to an 
earlier historical era or an earlier personal era; 
both times are distinguished from the adult 
present in that they are not progressive times 
laden with responsibilities and future death. 
In atavism lies stability, and in atavistic time, 
imagination may safely play. 9 
A definition of fantasy as literature which 
originates in and appeals to the atavistic im- 
agination applies equally to works written by 
women and men. 

But if men's and women's fantasies have similar 
motive forces and similar effects on their reading 
audiences, they differ in specific content. Erich 
Auerbach's analysis of medieval romance applies 
to modern masculinist fantasy, which continues 
the romance tradition in both content and form. 
According to Auerbach, the world of the 
romance 
is a world of adventure. It not only contains a 
practically uninterrupted series of adventures; 
more specifically, it contains nothing but the 
requisites of adventure. Nothing is found in it 
which is not either accessory or preparatory to 
an adventure. It is a world specifically created 
and designed to give the knight opportunity to 
prove himself. 10 

In masculinist fantasy, this "proving" is not sim- 
ple: it involves spiritual, moral, emotional, and 
physical tests. Nevertheless, the masculinist fan- 
tasy—from Tolkien's Middle Earth, to Eddison's 
violent wastes, to the magical geographies ex- 
plored by Morris' female heroes— is a world of 
recalcitrant material reality which must be 
ordered and tamed by the protagonist's will and 
physical strength. Control of the external world 
is the sine qua non for emotional and spiritual 
development. In contrast, fantasy by women 
usually focuses on passion rather than ac- 
tion — passion, that is, in both its ordinary and 
its religious significations. Even such traditional- 



ly structured works as Le Guin's Malafrend arid 
Doris Lessing's The Marriages Between Zones 
Three, Four, and Five develop primarily internal 
rather than external conflicts. Here, energy 
generated by action is channeled directly into 
emotional and spiritual growth, rather than con- 
trol of the environment. 

Fantasy is a kind of structure as well as a type of 
content. Having examined the content of fan- 
tasy, one should look also at its form, not only 
because form and content are in the final 
analysis inseparable, but because the differences 
between masculine and feminine formal conven- 
tions are instructive. In The Game of the Impossi- 
ble, W.R. Irwin shows that the writer of fantasy 
rhetorically draws the reader into an alternative 
reality by replacing the rules of the primary 
world with a consistent set of plausible rules bas- 
ed on fantastic premises. 11 One of the characters 
in The Compleat Enchanter by Fletcher Pratt and 
L. Sprague de Camp demonstrates this techni- 
que by explaining his fantastic journeys in quasi- 
scientific terms. Entering an alternative reality, 
says hero Harold Shea, is effected by passing 
"from one space-time vector to another," by 
breaking "a path in extra-dimensional space- 
time," which can be followed more easily later 
on because the restraints which hold the traveler 
in his own primary world are weakened. 12 In 
Book III, Belphebe explains that on arrival in 
her present alternative reality, "Twas as though 



dra 



a veil were drawn, ana i swam between 



d I 



betv 



wor 



Idt 



Such is the framework or situation in 



which traditional fantasy takes place. 

Auden analyzes specifically the plot of tradi- 
tional masculinist fantasy in an article about fan- 
tasy and related genres. The basic structure of 
fantasy, he observes, is the quest, which consists 
of the following elements: (1) a quest object, (2) a 
journey to seek it, (3) a hero, (4) the hero's 
helpers, (5) a series of tests for the hero, (6) the 
guardian of the quest object, which the hero 
must overcome. As Auden points out, variations 
of this basic plot are common in many types of 
Western literature. 14 The structure which Auden 
has identified may be diagrammed as an unequal 
triangle: the longest side, representing 
chronological time, is horizontal; the next- 
longest side, representing the development of the 
conflict, moves at an angle from left to right; the 
triangle's apex is the conflict, and its short side 
the resolution. 

The plot structures of fantasies by women are 
markedly different. Plots in women's fantasies 
are usually structured less steeply and more 
loosely than the typical plot Auden describes. 
Carol P. Christ suggests that women's quest 
literature, of which fantasy is perhaps the most 
pervasive type, differs from men's because its 
motivation is different: women's spiritual quest 
stories create a sense of the self and the world 
more than they celebrate a sense of self and the 




Margie Adam at the Michigan Women's Music Festival, 1982. Photo by Sharon George 



world. 15 In other words, if the heros of 
masculinist fantasy discover and validate their 
identities within an external matrix, the feminist 
fantasy hero creates an internal identity from 
found materials or from nothingness. She begins 
at a deeper cognitive level. Christ defines the 
elements of the woman's spiritual quest as 
follows: (1) an awareness of nothingness, (2) a 
mystical awakening, sometimes through connec- 
tions with others and sometimes alone, (3) a new 
naming of the self and the world, and (4) the 
drive for wholeness and re-integration. 16 If 
masculinist quest literature suggests that personal 
growth is necessarily accomplished in terrifying 
isolation, the feminist quest, according to Christ, 
"includes moments of solitary contemplation, 
but it is strengthened by being shared." 17 

In terms of structure, Christ's schema suggests 
that plots in this type of literature must be 
unusually fluid, and, indeed, an examination of 
spiritual quests in fantasies written by women 
reveals just this fluidity. These quests develop 
more gradually, less steeply, than conventional 
fantasy quests. Even such conventionally plotted 
works as the novels I have cited by Lessing and 
Le Guin might be more aptly described as 
parabolic than triangular. In each of these 
works, the hero descends into the depths of the 
psyche. She travels, literally and metaphorically, 
with companions until a certain point, then goes 
alone, and finally returns to the primary surface 
of life, again with companions. The quest in 
women's fantasy literature focuses primarily on 
discovery rather than on external conflict. This 
is not to say that the hero does not encounter 
obstacles, only that she is particularly engaged in 
gaining self-knowledge and self-control. Because 
the quest object is self-knowledge, greater em- 
phasis is given in women's fantasy to the resolu- 
tion of the plot, in which the hero learns to app- 
ly new-found knowledge and goes through a pro- 
cess of regeneration. 

Margie Adam. Songwriter is a fantasy quest. 
Adam is one of the founding mothers of the 
alternative women's music movement. Her art, 
inseparable from her feminism, is based on ra- 
tionality and aesthetic awareness as well as emo- 
tional involvement. Adam majored in English as 
an undergraduate, became a librarian, and made 
music a career only after years of considering it 
an avocation. Her album notes indicate that her 
work is deliberate and disciplined: 
Making this album was taking ten of my songs 
and running my ears over them— searching for 
the spaces that might like company. Into those 
spaces I invited women whose musical energies 
I love— and asked them to share their vision of 
the song. . . I8 



The object of the singer/songwriter's quest, 
then, is to sharpen her vision of and re-inforce 
her connection with the world, to become more 
integrated and complete. 

Throughout the lyrics of the album, Adam 
speaks the language of fantasy— establishes a 
space where the mind may play, beyond the or- 
dinary constraints of reality. This world is in- 
habited by unicorns, a sentient Northern Star, 
and turtles who run. 19 The singer can transcend 
time and freely inhabit all space: she can "tap- 
dance on the moon." There exists a cor- 
respondence, even identity, between nature and 
the landscape of the heart. Here, material reality 
does not exist to be overcome or to prove the 
hero. Values are proved, not in external conflict, 
but "on the pulses." The conflict occurs within 
the singer/her herself, as she confronts her own 
emotional responses to the cognitive world. Her 
journey teaches her to come to terms with her 
own deepest loves and deepest hates. Action is 
irrelevant; passion is all. 

This much may be understood from close 
readings of individual lyrics. An examination of 
these lyrics within their musical settings, as parts 
of a complex structure, shows the album as a 
whole suggesting the spiritual quest as a way to 
understand and reconstruct the self in the 
world. The album divides into three sections of 
approximately equal length. The first section 
establishes the theme of emotional growth and 
change. The second explores the construction of 
the singer/hero's psyche. The last section shows 
her re-emerging into the world of social relation- 
ships, with renewed strength and more complete 
vision. 

The first song on the album, "Best Friend," in- 
troduces the listener to the singer's imaginary 
world, affirming the primacy of the atavistic im- 
agination. The singer realizes by stages that her 
best friend is her true self, first represented by a 
unicorn, then by nature in the shape of the 
North Star. The deliberately naive lyrics are sup- 
ported by Kay Gardner's romantic flute track 
and by the simple triadic harmonies. In relation 
to the rest of the album, this song shows the 
singer understanding, solipsistically, only a par- 
tial truth: she overestimates her own self- 
sufficiency: 
Seeing is believing in the things you see 
Loving is believing in the ones you love. . . 
Although this stage of awareness is necessary 
because it validates the singer's vision and im- 
agination, its simplistic truth becomes complete 
only within the context of the album as a whole. 

"Images," the following cut, is slower, the flute 
voice stronger and more melancholy. The lyrics, 
addressed ambiguously to "you"— perhaps 



another person, perhaps one aspect of the singer 
herself— show her beginning to awaken to con- 
sciousnesses other than her own. Adam clearly 
states the theme of the journey here through 
descriptions of an interior geography: the mind 
is an ocean, the heart a mountain range. 

Sing the songs you hear in me 

Become part of the fantasy 

And the rest will come in time 

The rest will come in time. 
The singer projects into the future, thrusts 
herself and the ambiguous companion into the 
fantasy quest. She welcomes change. 

With the last song in this first section, the singer 
plunges deeper into her psyche: 

It is so silent in here 

It is not violent in here 

Isn't it easier to be yourself. . . 

Lost in inner space. 
The song begins slowly and picks up speed as 
the singer becomes entangled in the reversible 
propositions which obstruct her journey like the 
twists and turns of a cavern: 

What do you want 

Will you want what you find when you find it 

What will you find 

Will you find what you want when you want 

it? 
"The confusion out there" and "the illusion out 
there" are paralleled by the darkness within. 
Finally the singer is left with the unanswerable 
question, 

Is it better to find the world inside yourself 

Or is it better to go outside and find the 

world? 
As long as she listens only to what she feels, she 
remains "lost in inner space." The instrumental 
and melodic components of the song, with an 
especially noticeable alto flute voice, are 
unresolved. The song ends with a slight 
dissonance, which foreshadows the pain and 
anger explored in the album's central sec- 
tion—the harmonics underline the ambiguity of 
the lyrics. 

The instrumental "Rag Bag," a fast, syncopated 
piece, introduces confusion as the theme of the 
second section, which explores the 
singer/songwriter's psyche in depth. Because 
"Rag Bag's" center of melodic interest shifts from 
upper to middle to lower registers on the piano, 
the piece has a contrapuntal effect, which inten- 
sifies in a short fugal passage near the end. Har- 
monically, the piece is a series of modulations, 
predominantly in minor keys. The title aptly 
describes this collection of melodic fragments, 
the unity of which comes from its consistent 
ragtime beat and a monotonous, four-note motif 
of descending seconds. 



The second song in section two, and the last on 
side one of the album, "Sweer Friend," for the 
first time treats an explicitly (motional subject, 
the difficulty of establishing and maintaining 
friendships. Its emphasis on community rather 
than isolation is reinforced by the lush texture 
of the supporting vocals and the diminished 
strength of the instrumental voices. Although 
the song is finally positive, it represents a ten- 
tative movement in the singer's spiritual journey. 
Like "Images," it speaks of the future rather than 
the present, of hope rather than fulfillment. But 
now the "other" has a clear identity: she is a 
friend, a separate personality. In this 
separateness lie both joy and grief: 
Letting others define us kept us apart 
Now that we're together, let us begin 
Demanding the things that give us the wings 
To fly. . .to fly. . .to fly. 

A more definite step in the singer's quest is her 
recognition in "Beautiful Soul" that friendships 
can fail and that a friend, beautiful and good, 
may still be overcome by the hatred and indif- 
ference of an unjust world, which the friend in- 
ternalizes as self-hatred: 

Could it be you ask too much, lovable lady 

From a world that's out of touch, beautiful 

woman. . . 

Do you hate yourself, lovable lady 

Can I be of help, beautiful woman 

Your silence is a wall between the two of us 

And my beautiful soul is weeping. 

At this point, a pattern in the tempo emerges. 
The pacing contributes to the increasing tension 
of the album. The second song in the first sec- 
tion is slower than the first song, but the third 
in the section picks up speed. This pattern is 
repeated in both the second and the third sec- 
tions. In this way, Adam builds dramatic tension 
through both lyrics and tempo. 

"I've Got a Fury," the second song in the second 
section, shows the singer entering the depths of 
her own soul alone. What she finds there is 
anger— justified, but white-hot and self- 
destructive: 

My hands are shaking now 

I look through gritted smiles 

You tell me: don't be angry 

Laughter goes for miles, and miles 

And miles and miles and miles 

And somewhere not so far away 

A feeling starts to grow 

And everything I try to say 

Is drowned by what I know 

I've got a fury 
Deep inside my very soul 
And it's gonna eat me up 
Or let me go. . . 



In the piano voice, a rolling, insistent beat, cons- 
tant shifts between major and minor keys, and 
wide harmonic intervals of fifths and octaves 
underscore the verbal message by suggesting the 
sweeping, inevitable quality of the singer's anger. 
Unlike the friend she describes in "Beautiful 
Soul," the singer recognizes and names her emo- 
tions and thus begins the process of renaming 
herself, a necessary point in her quest. She now 
begins what Christ has called an "awakening to 
the depths of her soul and her position in the 
universe." 20 As in masculinist fantasy, the singer 
seeks a quest object, but her journey is overtly 
psychic, its object self-knowledge. Adam 
describes her vision in language very close to the 
masterful prose in which Tolkien, Eddison, and 
Morris describe harrowing physical hardships, 
but her use of this language is largely 
metaphorical. The singer explores an alternative 
interior reality instead of an alternative material 
environment. 

The last section of the album traces the singer's 
gradual spiritual renewal and recovery of vision. 
Like the other instrumental, "After the 
Drought" marks the threshold between con- 
sciousness and the primary world. But whereas 
"Rag Bag" suggested confusion, "After the 
Drought" establishes calm with a syncopated im- 
itation of raindrops. Although these two pieces 
have rhythmic similarities, they achieve different 
effects through different harmonic patterns. The 
characteristic intervals in "After the Drought" 
are thirds and fifths, which are associated in 
Western music with lyrical melody. In other 
words, they are easier to listen to than seconds 
and fourths, which characterize "Rag Bag." 
Although, like "Rag Bag," "After the Drought" 
is predominantly minor, its melody is more 
varied and stays more consistently within the 
treble: again, varied melody in the upper 
registers is easier to listen to because more con- 
ventional, particularly in popular music. "After 
the Drought" corresponds to what Christ calls 
the "mystical awakening." 

The last two songs on the album show the 
singer re-entering the world. After the in- 
strumental introduction, she describes an ex- 
perience of joyful abandon. In "Sleazy," the 
singer moves from caution at overtures of friend- 
ship to raucous, comic indulgence. Though the 
lyric is not specific, the instrumentals suggest the 
re-discovery of sexuality which is so often a part 
of women's quest literature. The piano's rolling 
chords reminiscent of Muddy Waters' classic 
rock and roll), Linda Tillery's steady percussion, 
and Vicki Randle's fine blues harmonica (replac- 
ing the more romantic flute in the album's first 
section) combine to make a radical and joyous 
change in the album's tone. The singer has faced 



her own intense emotions and has begun the 
process of re-naming, re-uniting with another: 
I'm wise to you baby, 
And I'm thinkin' that maybe 
We could be sleazy. . .sleazy. . .sleazy 
Although it has a definite place within a serious 
piece of musical quest literature, "Sleazy" taken 
by itself is unambiguously funny. 

The last song on the album, "Would You Like 
to Tapdance on the Moon?" overtly fantasizes, 
like the first song. These two songs provide the 
framework which appeals to the atavistic im- 
agination. However, the two songs have different 
messages: whereas "The Unicorn Song" em- 
phasizes the need to protect the world of the im- 
agination and defends the legitimacy of this in- 
terior world, the last song stresses the need to 
transform the singer's vision of the outside 
world: with the friend, it is possible to "tapdance 
on the moon," "play marbles on a cloud," "keep 
the child within us whole." The background 
vocals emphasize the singer's feeling of communi- 
ty. "Love is the answer." This is happy tapdanc- 
ing music. But it fades out: the quest is open- 
ended, never over, never sure. The singer slays 
no dragons, retrieves no grail, only creates the 
self and builds relationships. In Adam's 
paradigm, the self-reconstruction which follows 
self-knowledge is as necessary as the journey out. 

Free flight of the imagination, free indulgence in 
and discovery of emotional extremes, free play of 
the self as it regenerates. These are the steps in 
most women's quest literature. This pattern 
stresses emotions over action and grants 
regeneration the same importance as the 
journey, or discovery, aspect of the quest. 
Unlike masculinist fantasy, which stresses action, 
develops the complication of the plot more than 
its resolution, and shows a hero almost 
superhuman in will and physical strength, 
women's fantasy is looser and freer, generating 
interest through intensity of feeling more than 
through dramatic tension. 

The Bronte novels illustrate this pattern, at least 
in parts. The poems of Emily Dickinson and 
Christina Rossetti contain important examples of 
fantasy. Virginia Woolfs Orlando, Djuna Barnes' 
Nightwood, many of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 
stories, and H.D's poetry resonate as fantasy. 
Fantasy also characterizes novels by Doris Less- 
ing, Ursula K. Le Guin, Marge Piercy, and 
Margaret Atwood, and the poetry of Sylvia 
Plath, Adrienne Rich, and Diane Wakoski. In 
women's music, Chris Williamson, in particular, 
writes song lyrics and plans entire albums in the 
mode of fantasy. 21 

It is certainly possible to see twentieth-century 
masculinist fantasy, however competently writ- 



ten, as a moribund form, a holdover from 
medieval romance which has very little relevance 
to present reality. C.N. Manlove comments that 
modern fantasy narrates a "warfare of the 
natural against the supernatural" and that 
modern reading audiences must depend upon 
fantasy only for escape, not for emotional 
sustenance, because readers can no longer 
believe sufficiently in alternative realities. 22 
However, feminist fantasy, perhaps the most 
common mode in art by women, radically 
revises the genre of fantasy and infuses it with a 
new vitality. Feminist fantasy lies at the very 
center of women's culture. 



When Adam performed this song at the 
1982 Michigan Women's Music Festival, she 
substituted a Jersey cow for the Northern 
Star. 

Christ, p. 119. 

The quest structure is especially obvious on 
her two 1982 releases, Lumierc and Blue 
Rider, as well as on Adam's 1982 disc We 
Shall Go Forth. 

Modern Fantasy. Five Studies (New York: 
Cambridge University Press, 1975), pp. 
160-67 pass. 



Notes 




The Language of the Night: Essays on Fantasy 
and Science Fiction, ed. Susan Wood (New 
York: Putnam, 1970), 

(Winter 1981) 

Some mainstream artists, particularly Willie 
Nelson with Redheaded Stranger and Joan 
Baez have shown an awareness of the record 
album, not merely as a collection of pieces, 
but as a potentially ordered collection. 

"The Quest Hero" in Tolkien and the Critics: 
Essays on J.R.R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the 
Rings," ed. Neil D. Isaacs and Rose A. Zim- 
bardo (Notre Dame: University of Notre 
Dame Press, 1968), p. 54. 
Le Guin, p. 63. 
Le Guin, p. 67. 

"On Fairy Tales," in The Tolkien Reader 
(New York: Ballantine Books, 1966), p. 13. 

Tolkien, p. 32. 

(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 
p. 95. 

Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in 
Western Literature (Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1953), p. 136. 

(Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976). 

(New York: Lancer, 1976), p. 143. 

Pratt and de Camp, p. 179. 

Auden, p. 44. 

Diving Deep and Surfacing: Women Writers on 
Spiritual Quest (Boston: Beacon Press, 1980), 
p. 9. 

Christ, pp. 119-20. 

Christ, p. 8. 

Pleiades Records, HB 2747, 1976. All quoted 
song lyrics are taken from the album cover. 





RESOURCES- MUSIC 





SELECTED AMERICAN 
WOMAN COMPOSERS 

by Joseph P. Cirou 

Selected American Woman Composers is the title of 
an M.A. thesis about to be submitted to the 
College of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Rudolf 
Strukoff had mentioned in a Twentieth Century 
music history class the need for a study of the 
contribution of woman composers. After study- 
ing black composers with Dr. Warrick Carter, a 
project researching another musical minority was 
very interesting. 

Minority composers in America is a good area 
for research in the field of American music 
history. It is a timely topic; and material is readi- 
ly available. As a result of the Black Revolution, 
several books on the subject of Afro- American 
music have appeared. Eileen Southern, An- 
toinette Handy, and Dominique Rene de Lerma 
are in the forefront of work which enrichens 
both the black and the wider American musical 
experience. Participation in a black composers' 
class was valuable not only for understanding 
that minority but also, for the purpose- at hand, 
for the fact that several major Afro-A: erican 
composers are women. 

What occurred in the late sixties/early seventies 
for the black community has been taking place 
in the more recent late seventies/early eighties 
with woman's music. Simultaneously we see a 
growing interest in the musical contribution of 
the native and Hispanic American. From the 
standpoint of the entire Western Hemisphere, 
the world is becoming more aware of the 
achievements of Canada, Mexico, Caribbean 
and Latin America in folk, popular, and classical 
music. 

This project researched the contribution of 
American Woman Composers. It examined 
every American Woman Composer whose name 
appears in the Schwann Catalogue at least once 
between October, 1983 and June, 1984. We have 
attempted to learn something about every 
woman composer who receives mention of at 
least a few paragraphs in a doctoral or master's 
dissertation written since 1960. We have per- 
sonally studied the dissertations that discussed 
Amy Cheney Beach, Ruth Crawford Seeger, 
Gena Branscombe, Lily Strickland, Julia Smith, 
and Esther Ballou. Other more recent Ph.D. or 
Masters' theses such as those on Jean 
Eichelberger Ivey and a more recent one on Julia 
Smith have been noted but not consulted. 



In the course of this project we compiled seven 
large notebooks of material about the individual 
composers and woman composers in general. Fif- 
teen composers returned a catalogue of composi- 
tions and personal histories. They were: 



Blythe Owen 
Claire Polin 
Ada Richter 
Williametta Spencer 
Diane Thome 
Mary Jeanne 
van Appledorn 
Ruth Shaw Wylie 



Elaine Barkin 
Margaret Biggs Cromie 
Arline Diamond 
Sr. Elaine Gentemann 
Sr. M. Teresine Haban 
Sr. Theophane Hytrek 

Ellen Jane Lorenz 
Ursula Mamlock 

Local composer Beverly Defried D' Albert 
granted an interview to the author and 
presented him with a copy of Mental Sailing, her 
record on Coronet. 

A rather respectable literature has developed on 
the subject. Some of the works that I found 
useful are Unsung by Christine Ammer; 
American Woman Composers before 1870 by Judith 
Tick; Women in American Music by Adrienne 
Fried Block and Carol Neuls-Bates; Women Com- 
posers by Susan Stern; Jane Weiner Lepage's 
Women Composers, Conductors, and Musicians of 
the Twentieth Century; Aaron Cohen's Interna- 
tional Encyclopedia of Women Composers and 
several works by composer/musicologist Judith 
Lang Zaimont. 

I stopped compiling information when I reached 
my original goal: information on every woman 
American composer in Schwann. It took some 
trial and error to achieve this. In the meantime 
we found some artists whose works are recorded 
but do not appear in Schwann and many other 
interesting people. By that time I stopped adding 
composers to the profile I had 159 American 
woman composers, by no means an exhaustive 
list. 

By American is meant either born, naturalized, 
resident, or active in the United States. For 
those who have not or did not become citizens 
we have determined, for purposes of this study, 
that ten years residence or activity in the U.S. 
qualified a composer to be described as 
"American." 

Each composer has been assigned a Roman 
Numeral. The sketch of an artist varies in length 
from a short paragraph to no more than four 
pages. If a book or relevant article about the 
composer exists, it is listed in a personal 
bibliography directly beneath the profile. If any 
of the composer's music is available on record, a 
discography follows the personal bibliography. 



For a few, the fact of composing a work that is 
included in the Schwann Catalogue is the only 
biographical data available. I share my frustra- 
tion with good company. The International En- 
cyclopedia of Woman Composers and Judith Zai- 
mont's Concert Music by American Woman Com- 
posers reports similar difficulty in identifying a 
few. Some labels, though listed in the Schwann, 
are notoriously difficult to find. A recording of 
David Baker's Le Chat Qui Peche, needed for a 
paper on the composer, arrived in mid- 
July— only eight months after the paper had 
been submitted. Will the real Pamela Layman 
and Carla Scaletti come forward and tell us 
something about yourselves? 

Other composers receive very little treatment 
outside these pages. Margaret Biggs Cromie is 
among the 2000 named but not given a 
biography in the Cohen Encyclopedia. Our own 
Beverly DeFried D'Albert, who maintains a 
studio at G.S.U., is not listed in any of the 
reference works I consulted. Program notes from 
a recital by G.S.U. voice teacher Karen Blunk of 
the art songs of Jeanne Boyd are a rare source of 
information about this neglected Chicago com- 
poser. At present there is no single reference 
work, to our knowledge, that contains 
biographical material on all 159 of the com- 
posers we have chosen. 

Still I know my information is incomplete. Each 
issue of a major music periodical details new 
records or performances or premieres that took 
place too late for inclusion. 



For anyone interested in chronicling woman 
composers the field is wide open. Performances 
are becoming more frequent. A few are reaching 
celebrity status. The operas of Thea Musgrave 
are discussed in Opera News. So is a new opera 
by Libby Larson. Ellen Taafe Zwilich became in 
1982 the first woman composer to win the 
Pulitzer Prize for music. 

Still, the extensive list of names; the respectable 
amount of research, the occasional j remiere 
should not deceive the reader into thinking that 
woman composers have completely enrered the 
mainstream. If you have a musicologicJ bent, 
you may be familiar with twenty or fifty )f the 
159 names. Major works remain unrecoiJed or 
seldom performed. 

The work of educating a larger public has 
begun. There are organizations such as the biter- 
national League of Woman Composers; Arsis 
Press encourages female composers by publishing 
an almost exclusive catalogue of works by 
women. While also recording works by men, the 
Leonarda Record label is better known for its 
listings of works by women. 

Most women who compose want to be recogniz- 
ed for their quality and ability. For them the 
fact of gender is a secondary issue. Most 
minorities in America prefer to be accepted on 
impartial terms. Until this ideal becomes a reali- 
ty we will need to make lists, provide 
discographies, and overcome prejudice with in- 
formation. 



The following composers appear in Selected American Woman Composers. 



Sara Aderholt 
Noa Ain 
Martha Alter 
Beth Anderson 
Laurie Anderson 
Ruth Anderson 
Esther Ballou 
Elaine Barkin 
Marion Bauer 
Amy Cheney Beach 
Elizabeth Beeson 
Jeanne Behrend 
Roberta Bitgood 
Cary Jacobs Bond 
Victoria Bond 
Margaret Bonds 
Jeanne Boyd 
Gena Branscombe 
Radie Britain 
Jane Brockman 
Anne Callaway 
Nancy Laird Chance 
Mary Margaret Clark 



Rebecca Clarke 

Laura Clayton 

Ulric Cole 

Peggy Stuart Coolidge 

Rose Marie Cooper 

Eleanor Cory 

Darleen Cowles 

Ruth Crawford Seeger 

Margaret Biigs Cromie 

Beverly DeFries DAlbert 

Mabel Daniels 

Sharon Davis 

Arline Diamond 

Emma Lou Diemer 

Fannie Charles Dillon 

Lucia Dlugoszewski 

Judith Dvorkin 

Pozzi Escot 

Vivian Fine 

Idabelle Firestone 

Joanne Formal) 

Eleanor Everest Freer 

Lolita Cabrera Gainsborg 



Kay Gardner 

Jesse Love Gaynor 

Sr. Elaine Gentemann 

Miriam Gideon 

Pia Gilbert 

Peggy Glanville-Hicks 

Diane Zabelle Goolkasian Rahbee 

Shirley Graham 

Neva Garner Greenwood 

Elizabeth Gyring 

Sr. M. Teresine Haban 

Doris Hays 

Ethel Glenn Hier 

Faustina Hodges 

Katherine Hoover 

Helen Hopekirk 

Mary Howe 

Bonnee Hoy 

Sr. Theophane Hvtrek 

Jean Eichelberger Ivey 

Betsy Jolas 

Minuetta Kessler 

Alison Knowles 



Barbara Kolb 

Joan LaBarbara 

Margaret Ruthven Lang 

Libby Larsen 

Beatrice Laufer 

Pamela Layman 

Anne LeBaron 

Ethel Leginska 

Annea Lockwood 

Ruth Lomon 

Ellen Jane Lorenz 

Laurie MacGregory 

Ursula Mamlock 

Mana-Zucca 

Priscilla McClean 

Lena McClin 

Anne McMillan 

Joyce Mekeel 

Dorothy Rudd Moore 

Undine Smith-Moore 

Thea Musgrave 

Dika Newlin 

Camille Nickerson 

Juli Nunlist 

Pauline Oliveros 

Blythe Owen 

Alice Parker 

Susan McFarland Parkhurst 

Carmine Pepe 

Julia Perry 

Alexandra Pierce 



Evelyn Pittman 
Claire Polin 
Florence Price 
Marta Ptaszynska 
Olive Dungan Pullen 
Shulamit Ran 
Eda Rapoport 
Ada Richter 
Marga Richter 
Gertrude Roberts 
Megan Roberts 
Clara Barnett Rogers 
Constance Runcie 
Carla Scaletti 
Ruth Schonthal 
Philippa Duke Schuyler 
Daria Semegan 
Alice Shields 
Ann L. Silsbee 
Faye Ellen Silverman 
Netty Simons 
Jane Sloman 
Susan Smelzer 
Pril Smiley 
Bessie Smith 
Julia Smith 
LaDonna Smith 
Williametta Spencer 
Laurie Spiegel 
Emma Steiner 
Ora Pate Stewart 



Julia Stilman-Lazansky 

Margaret McClure Stitt 

Lily Strickland 

Louise Talma 

Charmian Tashjian 

Ivana Marsburger Themmen 

Diane Thome 

Joan Tower 

Mildred Lund Tyson 

Ludmila Ulehla 

Mary Jeanne Van Appledorn 

Nancy Van de Vate 

Kate Vannah 

Elizabeth Vercoe 

Elizabeth Waldo 

Elinor Remick Warren 

Wally Weigl 

Ruth White 

Mary Lou Williams 

Sr. Miriam Therese Winter 

Beatrice Witkin 

Mabel Wood-Hill 

Ruth Shaw Wylie 

Jane Corner Young 

Glad Robinson Youse 

Judith Lang Zaimont 

Marilyn Ziffrin 

Ellen Taafe Zwilich 



Music Announcement Music Announcement Music Announcement 




MuS x 



Jain other women musicians in a week of musical 
sharing and growth in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. 
The second annual Aipen Musi k-f est, scheduled far June 
16-23 in Estes Park, Colorado, will feature a 35-40 
member Wind Ensemble, with chamber ensembles formed 
from the major group. Works by women are being sought 
to be included on the concerts at the culmination of 
the week. The deadline for applications is April 1. 
For f u r t h er infor m a t i o n cant a c t Jane F r a s 1 e r , 12 2 1 
Downing #3, Denver, CO 30218 (phone - 303-861-4306) 





INTERVIEW 






11 Suggeu and Terry O'Neill 



MY BROTHER COMES HOME 

An Interview with Video Prize Winner 
Terry O'Neill 

by Karen Degenhart 

Terry O'Neill is a graduate of Governors State 
University who received national recognition 
last year when she was awarded first prize in the 
video category of the Dore Schary Awards for 
Human Relations Film and Video Productions. 
Her winning video, "My Brother Comes Home," 
is a documentary about her 37 year old brother, 
Bill Suggett, who is handicapped by cerebral 
palsy and mental retardation. He is unable to 
work or speak. The video illustrates how her 
family loves and takes care of Bill during one of 
his visits home from a center for the 
developmentally disabled. It is a 30 minute pro- 
gram portraying a unique human being as seen 
through the eyes and loving interaction of his 
family. Families who find themselves with a non- 
normal child can see how others have learned to 
adjust. 

This was the first year of the Dore Schary 
Awards for Human Relations Film and Video 
Productions, named after the former head of 
MGM and the national chairman of the Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. Schary pro- 



duced films with a human relations focus, such 
as in "Boys' Town." The award is only given to 
student programs which have a human relations 
theme. Two films and one other video were 
awarded prizes. Terry O'Neill received $1,000 for 
her first prize in the video category, and another 
$1,000 was awarded to Governors State Univer- 
sity. The only other school to receive money was 
the University of Southern California. The Dore 
Schary Awards Committee and the Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith paid Terry's 
way to attend a luncheon for the winners at the 
Princeton Club in New York City. "It was the 
happiest day of my life," Terry said. 

What led Terry into film and video production? 

"I've always been interested in children's 
literature and I've been very interested in 
children. I've always thought that I was going to 
write and illustrate children's books, and I've 
sort of fallen into other things along the way. 1 
know I want to write more than anything. I like 
producing, and I like directing, but what I really 
enjoy is writing." 

"So, this is what happened. I met someone who 
was working at GSU who heard I was a writer 
and asked if I ever considered writing scripts. I 
said no, and then he introduced me to TV. I 
wanted to film mv brother, to tell his story, and 
one thing led to another. It all came together." 



"It was good for me because I was an art major 
as an undergrad before I went to the Bahamas 
(where she lived and taught for seven years). I 
always wanted to combine writing with visuals. 
That's why I like video and film— you have to 
use pictures, you have to tell a story in pic- 
tures — and it's a whole other way of writing." 

"I got a lot of help from GSU. I was on a Talent 
Scholarship for my writing, and I don't think I 
could have afforded to go back to school if I 
hadn't received that." 

With the help of her advisor, Mel Muchnik, 
Terry applied for and won a Mini-Grant from 
GSU of $1,735 to help fund the video. Expenses 
over this amount came out of her own pocket, 
so equipment was borrowed from the school and 
her camera crew were volunteers. 

"My Brother Comes Home" was Terry's 
graduate project in media communications and 
she obtained valuable criticism from her 
graduate committee. Terry also gained training 
at GSU as a work-study student in the TV 
department, with lots of experience behind 
camera and in the media production lab, learn- 
ing as she went along. "I taught people how to 
edit just as I was learning so I was reinforced by 
doing that." She was also an intern at 
CBS/WBBM-TV in Chicago. "The internship 
opened my eyes to what the professional world 
of network television was like. By the time I was 
done I knew I could produce something for net- 
work television because I was doing it. Our pro- 
ducer was the type to give us so much respon- 
sibility. When she went away for a week, the in- 
terns had to produce 'Common Ground.' It was 
a good experience." 

Her video, "My Brother Comes Home," was 
broadcast on W 1 1 W/Channel 11, Chicago, in 
May and December of 1983, and exhibited at 
several international film and video festivals. In 
July 1983, she also won the Midwest Award for 
Non-Fiction Video in the National Video 
Festival sponsored by the American Film In- 
stitute and the Sony Corporation. She gave 
away the prize of camera equipment to those 
who helped with the video. 

What has Terry O'Neill been doing since 
graduation? For a while, to make ends meet she 
sold Mary Kay Cosmetics: "something I never 
expected to be doing. It helped me to sell myself, 
sell my ideas, and get over a lot of my shyness." 

But that was only a minor side trip. Currently, 
Terry O'Neill is busy with so many creative pro- 
jects that she has no room for reticence. In addi- 
tion to her 9 to 5 job in syndication and broad- 
cast duplication at "Video Dub" in Chicago, she 
is also writing proposals and scripts for television 



shows she would like to produce. Last June she 
traveled to the Bahamas to begin research and 
filming of a program on Bahamian music featur- 
ing street celebrations and costumes. In August 
'83 she shot a demo film in the Bahamas which 
she edited herself. Currently, she needs more 
funding to continue the project but hopes to 
work on it in the near future. 

Terry said, "Finding sponsors is like winning a 
lottery because there is so much competition and 
it depends on what's the hottest topic at the 
time." Yet, she says, "You can't be afraid to ask. 
You've got to believe enough in your project to 
call WTTW and ask for an appointment, or call 
the Bahamian Tourist Office. I'm not the most 
outgoing person in the world and it really took a 
lot of gumption to do this." 

Terry admits, "I guess I'm very idealistic. I just 
thought it would be easier being an independent 
producer than it has been." But such obstacles 
only spur her on to develop other talents. For 
example: 

"When I graduated from GSU I got together 
with some other people and we started a 
children's theatre company. "Patchwork Players" 
presents original plays and musicals for young 
audiences. "We blend music, theatre and au- 
dience participation with entertaining characters 
and contemporary themes. Our performances of- 
fer a positive approach to dealing with everyday 
life from a child's point of view. As an ensemble, 
Patchwork Players offers a wide variety of talents 
and backgrounds. In addition to performing, the 
group conducts workshops for children and/or 
adults in creative dramatics, music, movement, 
acting, film/video, play production and adapting 
literature for performance. 

Another project in the works is the designing of 
toys for handicapped children which Terry is do- 
ing with some friends and her sister who teaches 
special education. 

Terry would also like to develop a program with 
fellow Patchwork Player Li Ussery, combining 
videotaping and creative dramatics to help 
disabled people. Based on her experience with 
her brother's reaction to seeing himself on televi- 
sion, Terry knows there's a lot of therapeutic 
falue in seeing one's self on video. "My brother's 
response was so incredible! As we were shooting 
I thought if no one ever sees this besides Bill, 
it'll be worth it. When he saw himself on televi- 
sion, he was so proud. It really helped his self- 
concept. It was a positive thing for him because 
he relates so well to television. That's the way 
he gets most of his entertainment, as do many 
handicapped people." 

Terry is also working on a children's book. 
"What I'd love is to have it published and then 



produce it as an after-school TV special." 

"I'm a positive person," says Terry, "and even 
though I've had a lot of ups and downs since I 
graduated I just feel like things are going to work 
out. I'm just going to keep plugging away. I am 
working on another film called "Montana 
Cousins." It's about my Mom because she is a 
fascinating woman. Especially when starting out, 
I think you should write or film things you 
know about. That's one of the reasons why I 
made the tape of my brother. When he meets 
people they're kind of taken aback, but once you 
get to know him, he's a very warm person. He 
has a special way of expressing himself and peo- 
ple really take to him. That's what I was trying 
to show in "My Brother Comes Home." 

Terry concludes: "It's been my experience at 
GSU that there a lot of women like myself who 
are starting off in new careers. I've had a certain 
amount of success and I'm really happy about it, 
but it hasn't been easy. If you believe in 
something, if you really think that what you're 
doing is worthwhile and it's going to make you 
feel good about yourself, you have to keep 
remembering that when you face obstacles. 
That's what's going to keep pushing you on- 
ward, to keep pushing you to finish it, and not 
just say, Til forget it,' or put it on the shelf." 

For the future, Terry is hoping to get into pro- 
gram development with a corporation that pro- 
duces children's shows, particularly after-school 
TV specials. 






CRITICISM-FILM 





FOCUS ON: Sharon Couzin 

by Julie Laffin 




Sharon Couzin is an experimental film-maker 
and chair of the Film Department at the School 
of the Art Institute of Chicago. 

"Roseblood," "Year of the Mice" and 
"Deutschland Spiegel" are three films by Sharon 
Couzin that exemplify the filmmaker's concern 
for pure cinema. In these experimental works 
Couzin explores creating and resolving visual 
problems and inventing formal structures with 
which to effectively accommodate complex 
themes. 

Much of Couzin's work demonstrates her 
mastery over a sophisticated technical process 
called optical printing. The optical printer is, 
essentially, an apparatus which consists of a pro- 
jector and a camera. By projecting one frame at 
a time, the projector allows frame by frame 
analysis and manipulation of the footage. The 
camera then records these manipulations. In 
bipacking the footage (i.e., layering and re- 
cording different pieces of film image), Couzin 
creates unusual spatial relationships within 
shots. Motion is then used to form and reform 
new relationships between elements. 

In "Roseblood," it is not uncommon to see 
many separate elements moving in the frame at 
one time. In one sequence of the film there are 
several abstract shapes in motion. Each of the 
shapes moves about according to its own inter- 
nal dynamism until at one point they all con- 
verge, like several puzzle pieces, to form a 



photographic image of the woman/dancer's face. 
When the pieces unite, her head begins to turn 

nd the film progresses. What was fragmented 
becomes whole and stasis is never maintained 
for more than a fleeting moment. 

A strong fluidity is achieved throughout the 
film, contributing to the sense that Couzin's 
work reflects the world of the subconscious or a 
"dream state." 1 Couzin's sense of motion and 
ability to synthesize elements works toward har- 
monizing movement. Besides choreographing dif- 
ferent elements which form a whole, images at 
times will fuse, occupying the same space. The 
dancer's head slowly turns to reveal her face. 
The following shot is of a rotating, translucent 
shell of approximately the same scale (as her 
face), and turning at the same speed. In the next 
shot the images of the shell and the woman's 
face have been bipacked (layered). They merge 
as they turn in unison, metamorphosing into 
one another. Couzin pulls these disparate 
elements together for the purpose of creating 
analogy between the delicacy of the translucent 
shell and the woman's sensitive features. The 
overexposed quality of the photographic image 
reminds one of old photographs from an earlier 
era; she is likened to a pristine madonna. 

"Roseblood" is not a narrative: it is not struc- 
tured by text. Its progression is nonlinear. The 
film may be more aptly described as visual 
poetry, relying on symbol, rhythm, and the uni- 
que juxtaposition of image to evoke meaning. 
Thus ideas which have their basis in language 
can also be expressed. Couzin juxtaposes the im- 
ages of a rose and a hand bleeding from the 
palm and then cuts to a shot of a woman's hand 
holding a knife. Apart from evoking the words 
in the film's title, the relationship of these two 
images express an important dichotomy that is 
explored throughout the film— the dichotomy of 
harmonious, creative powers of femininity and 
her fragmenting, destructive (and perhaps self- 



destructive) powers. 

At times the dancer is in control of balancing 
these powers, as her movements suggest. Her 
graceful gestures imply skillful control over an 
internal impetus. She sits in a lotus position. 
The background is matted, isolating her in a 
black void. Her figure then rotates incrementally 
for several consecutive frames, creating the effect 
of spinning a 360 degree head-over-shoulder cir- 
cle, transcending the limitations of any external 
reality. 

At other times, however, she is threatened and 
out of control. Her movements become erratic, 
interrupting the previously established flow of 
images. The dancer in a long red dress is shot at 
silent speed. Her gestures now seem bizarre and 
ridiculous as she frolics away from the camera. 
Next, she is poised and alert in a Tai Chi stance 
prepared to combat the threatening presence of 
a knife. During this long take as the dancer 
turns, Couzin intercuts images of the knife, thus 
creating interaction between the dancer and the 
weapon. When she reaches to intercept the knife 
it continually evades her grasp. Near the end of 
the sequence is one brief static shot showing the 
knife being held by a feminine hand, the threat 
self-imposed: the hand holding the knife appears 



Mice" retains a fresh, naive look: the technical 
elements have not usurped the content and do 
in fact add to the film's charm. In one sequence, 
Couzin playfully rotates images of the nude 
children; the effect is that they are moving 
around the frame performing supernatural 
acrobatics. 

The film is loosely structured, compared to 
"Roseblood" and has some of the qualities of a 
home movie. It is a collage of live-action snap- 
shots—a recording of precious moments 
sometimes seen whimsically for a split second 
but later treated with careful and deliberate 
observation. Couzin layers the images in a way 
that creates multiple points of view. The effect is 
cubist. 

The most important technical accomplishment 
of "Year of the Mice" is that, though silent, the 
visuals evoke the presence of sound. One of the 
little sons is practicing the violin. As he plays, 
Couzin focuses in on his arm and bow connec- 
ting with the violin strings. The image is shot 
with 8mm film using a 16mm camera and optical 
printed back up to 16mm. The result is a strong 
repetitious gesture created by splitting the 
original image in half through the shooting pro- 
cess. When projected, the upper and lower 
halves of the image are shown alternately, 
creating an intense visual rhythm which causes 
the action to blur. As the boy's movements 
become relentlessly frantic, we can almost hear 
thr strained screeches of the instrument. Percep- 
tually there is no sound but the visual tension 
created causes us to experience the image as 
though we are hearing him play. We experience 

form of synesthesia, and the rhetoric is effec- 
tive: the discomfort is so great we want the boy 
to stop. 

"Deutschland Spiegel" is quite different from 
both "Roseblood" and "Year of the Mice." As 
Gina Marchetti and Carol Slingo point out in 




to be the dancer's own. Regardless of the nature 
of her experiences, the dancer is not only 
responding to and interacting with situations, 
she is creating them as wel 

In "Yeai of the Mice," which is a study of 
Couzin's three children, Couzin uses some of 
Roseblood's methods of optical printing. Despite 
its technical glamour, though, "Year of the 



: ; 



their article, "The Films of Sharon 
Couzin— Romanticism Reconsidered," it is clear- 
ly "less autobiographical" than Couzin's other 
films, addressing social and political themes. 2 
Much of the film is composed of old German 
newsreel footage shot on black and white film 
stock which contributes to the austere tone of 
the film. The images are of fences, factories, 
laboratories, machines, crowds: "concentration 
camp overtones." 3 

Another departure is "Deutschland Spiegel's" 
narrative structure, although by no means con- 
sidered traditional in such terms. The visuals are 
accompanied by written text, but the film pro- 
gresses in a nonlinear way. All of the events 
could occur in any order. Dave Kehr, writing in 
the May issue of Reader, describes the viewer's 
sense that the story is being told in "blocks of 
imagery" or "short broken pieces." 4 A young 
woman narrates, describing a situation which 
seems to be part of a memory. She often com- 
ments upon past historical events as though they 
are happening now or are about to happen. 
Marchetti and Slingo suggest, "the story may 
happen in Germany or anywhere, but the threat 



ind 



ind 



ana unease pertain to our time ai 

Couzin heightens this "unease" by experimen- 
ting with relationships between image and 
language. Marchetti and Slingo point out the 
"disjuncture between the images shown and the 
images described" and their "discomforting lack 
of consistency." 6 The narrator's comments fre- 
quently do not bear any correspondence to the 
image. Early in the film, she speaks of her 
brother who is training to be a boxer— but the 
image projected is of a hand operating technical 
equipment. Later we see a boy skipping rope and 
assume he is the brother she has been speaking 
of. Nosowitz writes, 

Both text and image are repetitive; the text 
explicitly revises itself, returning to its 
beginning several times to alter details and 
sometimes whole passages. Word and image 
never seem to describe the same thing. 
They converge to separate again. The space 
between them is never bridged. It is in this 
space, one feels, that the world of the film 
exists, a world that cannot be directly 
described, but only referred to. 7 
The narrator is also detached from the literal 
meaning of the story and does not participate 
emotionally with the subject matter. Although 
she says that "this is a tragic tale" she does not 
seem able to comprehend the meaning of her 
own words, furthering the viewer's discomfort. 
When referring to her brother she makes 
statements such as "He is lucky. I wish I were a 
boy" and later she says, "His red t-shirt is 
clean." 



The presence of one color shot in the film in jar- 
ring. The shot is of a boy (brother) skipping 
rope. Juxtaposed with the newsreel footage, it 
causes an immediate shift in the time reference. 
Because the boy is very young and modern look- 
ing, his connection to the rest of the story seems 
unclear, completely out of context. Initially the 
only element that ties him to the rest of the film 
is the narration. But gradually the rope skipping 
becomes monotonous. Dave Kehr explains, 
"what seems at first to be a burst of life in this 
blasted landscape gradually fades into it, as the 
repetitions of the found newsreel footage infect 
the repetitious activity of the new, and the boy 
is absorbed in the manic, meaningless blur of 
making and doing." 8 

In all three films Couzin demonstrates the same 
relentless commitment to the exploration and in- 
vention of film form. With the vigorous applica- 
tion of technical processes, Couzin intensively 
investigates the interrelationship between form 
and content, moving beyond convention to ex- 
pand the vocabulary of cinema. 

Endnotes 

1) Marcjetti, Gina and Carol Slingo. "The Film 
of Sharon Couzin-Romanticism Recon- 
sidered." Jump Cut (No. 28), p. 42. 

2) Ibid.; p. 43. 

3) Ibid.; p. 43. 

4) Kehr, Dave. "Structuralist Storytelling." 
Reader (May 14, 1982), Sec. 1, p. 10. 

5) Marchetti and Slingo. "The Films of Sharon 
Couzin-Romanticism Reconsidered." p. 43. 

6) Nosowitz, Harvey. "View of Chicago." 
Millenium Film Journal (Fall/Winter 
1982-1983), No. 12, p. 39. 

7) Marchetti and Slingo. "The Films of Sharon 
Couzin-Romanticism Reconsidered." p. 46. 

8) Kehr, Dave. "Structuralist Storytelling." 
p. 10 

Works Cited 

1) Kehr, David. "Structuralist Storytelling," 
Reader (May 14, 1982), Sect. One, p. 10. 

2) Marchetti, Gina and Carol Slingo. "The 
Films of Sharon Couzin-Romanticism 
Reconsidered," Jump Cut (No. 28), p. 42-46. 

3) Nosowitz, Harvey. "View of Chicago," 
Millennium Film Journal (Fall/Winter 
1982-1983), No. 12, p. 39-40. 



BOOK REVIEW 



RANDOM REFLECTIONS ON 
AN ANTHOLOGY 

by Temmie Gilbert 

There they were, lying on my desk, two an- 
thologies that I had read in my usual "an- 
thological" fashion, picking out the selections 
that particularly interested me. I rarely read an 
anthology from cover to cover. More often I ap- 
proach it in a supplemental way, using it as an 
added dimension to another work that I am 
reading or studying. But there they were, staring 
me in the face, reminding me that I had promis- 
ed a book review on at least one of them. I had 
read enough of both to realize that each com- 
plemented the other, so I decided to "go whole 
hog" and read them in their entirety. 

As I read, questions about anthologies began to 
cross my mind. What kind of people enjoy 
editing collections? How much does an editor 
need to know about the general subject matter 
in order to create a good anthology? How do 
you decide what to include and what to omit? 
What kinds of connections are necessary bet- 
ween segments of a literary collection? 

After reading both books I decided to approach 
one anthology, Women in Theatre, Compassion 
and Hope, edited by Karen Malpede, in my usual 
fashion, using those portions that were relevant 
to increase my insights into the plays contained 
in the second book, A Century of Plays by 
American Women edited by Rachel France. This 
worked very well because the books overlap 
emotionally and intellectually and often have 
specific ties. Reading excerpts from writings by 
critics, producers, and actresses in Women in 
Theatre that coincided with the dates of the 
plays, as well as comments by some of the 
authors in A Century of Plays by American 
Women often added a fascinating layer of com- 
prehension. One of Karen Malpede's plays, in- 
cidentally, is included in the France Anthology 
and Ms. France is quoted in Women in Theatre. 

Both of these books are thoughtfully and in- 
telligently compiled with scholarly and in- 
teresting introductions. Therefore, I am going to 
limit my further comments to A Century of Plays 
by American Women since this is the anthology 
on which I focused. I would like to note here 
that I highly recommend Karen Malpede's book. 
The selections chosen from writings by major 
performers and creators of theatre are moving, 
fascinating, and often illuminating. 

An anthology, as defined by Random House 



Dictionary, is "a book of selected writings by 
various authors usually in the same literary form 
or on the same subject," and what "makes or 
breaks" an anthology is selection and arrange- 
ment. The editor chooses perimeters which, in 
one sense, limit her/his choices. In another 
sense these boundaries make the possibility of a 
comprehensive collection a feasible one. As in- 
dicated in the title, Rachel France limited this 
work to twentieth century American women 
playwrights. She also limited the anthology to 
the one-act form. A century of American 
women's plays covers a tremendous amount of 
theatre literature. There is a supplemental 
bibliography included with well over a hundred 
titles. Focusing the collection on one-acts ob- 
viously makes it more manageable. However, 
there are important women playwrights, such as 
Lillian Hellman, who, therefore, have to be 
omitted. Ms. France makes the point that "in 
examining the spectrum of 20th-century drama 
we find that, thanks to the gift of hindsight, 
one-act plays have often been the best and cer- 
tainly the most interesting works that have ap- 
peared on the American stage." This may or 
may not be true. I would tend to contest the 
premise concerning "the most interesting works." 
Certainly there are some longer works that are 
as or more interesting than some of the work in 
this anthology. However, within the limits Ms. 
Fra.ice has set, the collection is indeed a most 
interesting one. (Note: There are two exceptions 
where the editor has violated her own rule. Hou 
the West Was Won by Cicely Hamilton and 
Christopher St. John is English and Gertrude 
Stein's The Mother of Us All is an opera 
libretto.) 

The introduction to the book is thorough, 
scholarly, and well done. It incorporates critical 
analysis, which points up weak points as well as 
strengths, with well-organized historical 
background that places the plays in proper 
perspective. Within the historical material, Ms. 
France explores both the Women's Movement 
and the Little Theatre Movement. 

Plays within this book can be categorized in 
many ways. They are presented chronologically 
with a brief biography of the author(s) written 
by Rachel France. I would note here that it 
would be more useful to the reader if each 
playwright's biography immediately preceded her 
play. The subject matter is varied. There are 
plays with a sociological thrust, some are 
politically oriented; many deal with human rela- 
tions. To categorize in another way, there are 
plays dealing with the suffragette movement, the 
labor movement, feminism, war, the Depression, 



and facism. The plays vary in style from very 
traditional structure to avant garde experimental 
forms; from out and out propaganda to subtle 
explorations of human relationships. In this 
sense, the anthology is a good representation. 

Quality of the pieces varies as it does in most 
anthologies. Some of the plays are simplistic; 
some are extremely unsophisticated. Others are 
complex, presenting many layers and dimen- 
sions. It is interesting to note that some of the 
best works never received recognition or 
achieved commercial success, while some of the 
better known theatrical "hits" are not particular- 
ly exciting. This subtly makes a statement about 
"professional" and "non-professional" theatre 
that, though far from new, always needs 
reiterating. 

Although Rachel France does not purport to 
having brought together strictly feminist plays, 
this collection speaks to the length of the 
American woman's struggle for equality. The 
fact that this is not obviously contrived makes 
the point much stronger, and the reader 
becomes ready for the powerful, disturbing con- 
tent in the latter plays because of the content of 
those which preceded them. 

Agatha: Yes, I was a lady— such a lady that 
at eighteen I was thrown upon the 
world, penniless, with no training 
whatever which fitted me to earn 
my own living. When women 
become citizens I believe that 
daughters will be given the same 
chances as sons and such a life as 
mine will be impossible. ("How the 
Vote Was Won" 1909) 

Selina: (bitterly) Iss! The woman alius 
beckons and the man follows. 
Women don't never upholds one 
the other. They as win be covered 
with fanity and triumph whether 
they calls theirselves bad uns or 
good uns. ("The Mothers" 1915) 

Harriet: Look here, father, if I have to set 
this in bigger type I will— doesn't it 
seem a little incongruous to be giv- 
ing parties with the country in the 
state it is? With people standing in 
bread lines and dying of hunger? I 
don't suppose 250 thousand would 
be anything but a drop in the 
bucket, but it ought to feed a 
mouth here and there. Sounds like 
Louis XVI at Versailles to me. 
("Can You Hear Their Voices?" 
1931) 

Woman: You want it because it's mine. Plain 
and simple, because it belongs to 



me. And you think that I belong to 
you, too, and that's why you want 
me. You want me and my art 
reproduction. You want my art 
reproduction and my entire 
reproduction system. You hate both 
my systems. The HOW TO LIVE 
FOREVER SYSTEM, and the 
HOW TO LIVE HARMONIOUS- 
LY AS A WOMAN system. And I 
hate you in turn for selling your 
umbrella and losing your hair and 
getting excited at French postcards, 
and pretending to be dependable 
just because you attend all natural 
functions you are invited to 
without me, just to show me up! 
Do you dance there? Are you 
always cutting in? How do the 
ladies function at the functions? I'll 
surprise you one day, I'll accom- 
pany you and then you'll dance 
with me. . .you'll dance to my tune! 
("Skywriting" 1960's) 

In the Introduction to A Century of Plays by 
American Women Ms. France states that "it is 
necessary for women to discard the stereotypes 
and develop a new image for themselves." I can't 
imagine that any of us would disagree with that 
statement. In reading these plays written in a 
short format, it seemed to me that there was a 
danger of eliminating one stereotype and 
creating another. The brevity often makes it im- 
possible to develop a three dimensional character 
and to explore all the variations possible within 
the main theme. However, if one keeps this in 
mind, the anthology is good reading; it presents 
crucial ideas in generally well-written works, it 
brings the reader a valid historical perspective, 
and introduces a wide variety of women 
playwrights. If you assess each of these 
playwrights in the context of her period, you 
will find that most of them are articulate and 
imaginative, and that they have something vital 
to say. Yet each writer has a strong individual 
personality. The strength of this anthology lies 
in differences, rather than in similarities. 

On the whole, I'm glad the books were lying on 
my desk. I'm glad I read them from cover to 
cover. The questions I noted in the beginning of 
these ramblings still are picking at my mind. 
Some of the answers are, on the surface, ob- 
vious. In order to compile a worthwhile an- 
thology one must be a good researcher - patient, 
intelligent, creative, and sensitive. You need a 
lot of information and you need to know what 
to do with it. Writing skills and original thought 
are needed by good editors. Selection must be a 
very difficult process. It makes me think of the 



proverbial "kid turned loose in the candy store" 
- all those goodies to be tucked between the 
covers of one book. That, of course, leads to the 
necessity of finding a thread or threads that 
weave connections and relationships. Rachel 
France's researches thorough and consistent. 
Although I believe many women playwrights 
already are an integral part of contemporary 
theatre, Rachel France states that her objective 
is "to bring women authors into the main-stream 
of American Drama." To accomplish her objec- 
tive, however, she has chosen plays that she ac- 
curately describes as being "worthy of critical 
confrontation" and comprising "an important 
part of our dramatic tradition." They are con- 
nected because they were written by American 
women who "articulate various points of view 
and differing sensibilities." They do this in a 
variety of formats and a melange of styles that 
make an anthology that is well worth exploring. 
A Century of Plays by American Women is a pro- 
vocative, meaty, good read. 



A Century of Plays by American Women by Rachel 
France. New York: Richard Rosen Press, 1979. 

Women in Theatre by Karen Malpede. New York: 
Drama Book Pub., 1983. 



REVIEW-THEATRE 




FEAR-Y TALES: 

A PERFORMANCE ART 

PROGRAM 

by Susan Bass Marcus 



"Performance art is like a painting that comes to 
life except. . . Except that lines are spoken but 
not always as a narrative and sometimes not at 
all; except that dance or movement may be the 
basis for a piece, or the artist may seem 
catatonic; taped sounds may or may not con- 
tribute to the piece. The same is true for projec- 
tions, music scores, goldfish, ritual objects, or 
any other element. Performance art is very per- 
sonal work, and all the exceptions make perfor- 
mance artworks different from conventional 
theatre, dance, poetry recitations, or tableaux 
vivants." 

Susan Bass Marcus, a Chicago puppeteer and 
visual arts educator recently produced a program 
of performance art pieces at MoMing Dance and 
Arts Center, Chicago. Her work is full of excep- 
tions. She uses puppets but contradicts accepted 



conventions of both theatre and puppetry in the 
ways she uses them. The voice of one comes 
from an actor not involved in its manipulation; 
the head of the other is torn off and the body 
continues to react; voices of three actors overlap 
and intertwine in raging confusion; the script is 
episodic and avoids resolving the problems it 
proposes. Marcus tears apart two traditional 
fairy tales ("Cinderella" and "Snow White") and 
questions the premise and meaning of "Beauty 
and the Beast" by continuing the tale beyond its 
traditional end. 

Marcus assumes the characters of Cinderella, 
Snow White and Beauty, but alternates their 
speeches with comments and images drawn from 
autobiographical material. Months of writing 
and editing preceded this performance. The 
commentary developed around objects from 
Marcus' past: chairs, tables, tabletents, beds. 
Family relationships were also sources of im- 
agery. Each commentary involved not only 
recollections but also a distillation process which 
pared Marcus' language into essential metaphors. 

Two male actors performed with Marcus. Jan 
Wiezorek manipulated one male puppet and 



spoke his lines while John Podraza supplied the 
voice for the other puppet which Marcus 
manipulated. Ruth Rootberg, a performance ar- 
tist, musician, mime and clown handled lights 
and sound. All four participants are products of 
Chicago's Columbia College master's program in 
interdisciplinary arts in education. Each has 
studied with James Grigsby, a well established 
performance artist and sculptor. Marcus concen- 
trated in performance art with Grigsby at Col- 
umbia and she credits him with insisting on the 
need for honesty in performance work. Not soul- 
baring confessions, but images that come from 
insights and experience important to the artist 
and evocative for the audience. The "painting" 
won't come to life without that honesty. 
Without it, performance art pieces are only 
clever, cunning, witty, or worse, just mean- 
ingless. Marcus expects her pieces to be more, to 
be provocative and disturbing. Her program was 
called "Fear-y Tales"— tales not for small 
children. 




i POETRY 





y 




**» 





THE FISHWIFE'S 
DECLARATION OF 
INDEPENDENCE 

When love dies no sea breeze blows, 
my ship's locked in polar ice, pent by floes, 
my rock-bound heart left off Patagonia 
now and then pelted by chill waters 
and in between an Arctic sun strains 
to melt frozen foam, icicled gunwales 
misted over mizzen masts and main sails. 

A fish slaps upon the granite gob; 
waves lift it sun-flecked to God 
bearing it sacrificial to the altar-top. 
Soon the sun blisters its goggling eyes, 
tide-tossed back upon the rocks, 
white fish-belly reared to the skies, 
all fish-rot and seaweed the ale wife 
gasps gills, flaps fins for sea water. 

So time flung this love upon the rock 
and I would have wished to be a mermaid 
half-woman, half-fish in enchantment round 
but the spell broken I turn shoreward; 
my fins fall off and I tread water. 

My feet planted on the ground, 
I feel I've escaped the frothy eddy 
of passion, pivoted and propelled, 
and I gulp for breath, kissing 
the land, my feet, my roots, 
my sandy soil, and mulchy mud 
of my birth, lost in weary whirl, 
and as a dervish, I the would-be wife 
worshipped the needle, a waif, a girl, 
and sped spent to gelatinous union, 
a player the statue-maker twirled 
to pose, to posture, till purchased. 

I reject that ancient mystic mutter! 
a wife is not a mermaid nor a chattel. 
This fishwife cries to ply her cutter 
in deeper more crystal schools of marlin 
and never peddle her fry in any market; 
her catch is kinetic, her compass private, 
her steerage personal, her passage free, 
and no husband stands at the helm. 



Olivia Diamond 



POEM TO MY DEAD FATHER 

(On Seeing A Childhood Photograph) 

What did you mean 
by so much distance? 
By standing on a rise 
yards away 
aiming down at us: 
your clump of children, 
our mother, 
alone behind us, 
posing on the plaza lawn, 
smiling and squinting 
at your camera? 

What did you mean 

by the flag and tree 

almost touching us 

with their shadows? 

By the glittering cars 

and the towering buildings 

in the background: 

infinities of glass and stone, 

fold upon fold 

of granite, sky 

and shadow? 

What did you mean 
by such poor focus? 
As though even then, 
twelve years before it happened, 
you were pulling away, 
the haze settling between us 
as we dwindled in the distance: 
your wife and children 
standing before a flagpole, 
a whole city of promise 
behind us. 

Christine Beregi 




POEM FOR JIM 

We climb 

the steep hill, 

following a rivulet. I 

am following you 

who move ahead, 

opening branches like doors before me, 

helping me over felled logs and tangled roots, 

parting the barbed wire through which I crawl 

snagging my cuff and shirt. 

But your finesse is infinite! 

You lead us to the top— 

a glade of sunlight! 

An open field before us! 

The lazy cattle grazing! 

I stoop to drink 

from the seam of earth 

where water trickles out. 

You stop me, 

laughing, 

lifting me up, 

pointing to the pile of dung beside us. 

You are decades older 

I am in 

your hands. 

We move back down 
the hill. I, 
behind you. 
"Precipitous," you say 
as my foot gives way 
on a shaleslide. 
"Precipitous . . . precipice." 
Word games 
in which you are always 
teacher, 
sage. 

And then- 
half turning, 
half laughing at yourself, 
you ask: 
"Do you want 
to make love?" 
Your face grown sterner now 
with seriousness, 
with embarrassment 
as silence spreads between us 
and suddenly I see 
I have everything to teach you. 

Christine Beregi 



POEM TO AN UNKNOWN 
LOVER 



love, 

who are you 

that suddenly I turn 

from the kitchen sink 

to say aloud in the stillness 

"Love . . ." 

who are you 

that I move 

to the center of this house, 

stand here in the falling darkness, 

the towel in my hands, 

hearing the noise of my movements 

ebb away 

into the sounds of all these hills 

I see you 

as I have always seen you 
moving toward me 
through time and distance, 
through foreign countries 

years it has taken 

and yet you come 

and yet I dream of your coming: 

across continents, 

through crowds of people 

each episode of your life 

bearing you like waves 

until you stand behind me 

and suddenly I turn, 

see all the years in your eyes 

and though you are strange to me, 

your skin the color of olives and earth, 

your name, though you have not said it, 

fills my mouth 

and when finally we touch 

home is in our hands. 



THE DANCE 

I come to you unarmed 

(armed to the teeth) 

you come to me open 

(closed upon yourself) 

for this dance 

we dare not decline 

as music in broken time 

bellows like the wind pulling us 

over Autumn's padded floors of metaphors 

too hot to linger near 

too close to winter's rhymes 

now inextricably intertwined 

we dance the dance 

we would not decline. 



. 



K. Paula Bonham 



Christine Beregi 




Gili Sherman 





BOOK REVIEW 





IN A DIFFERENT VOICE: 
PSYCHOLOGICAL 
THEORY AND WOMEN'S 
DEVELOPMENT 

Carol Gilligan, Cambridge, MA: 
Harvard University Press, 1982, 
paperback $5.95 

by Charles Saltzman 

In a Different Voice brings together several major 
studies conducted by Carol Gilligan and her col- 
leagues at Harvard. Some of the material was 
published in other versions in the Harvard 
Educational Review. It is the latter feature that 
accounts for the one minor flaw in this 
altogether eloquent and important book — a 
tendency toward redundancy, especially of the 
major theme which unifies the studies. Gilligan, 
however, is so gifted a writer that the restate- 
ment of her theme is always in fresh, eloquent 
language that can be welcomed despite its hav- 
ing become familiar. This is a book that is 
nothing short of brilliant, a book no one can 
read without feeling compelled to rethink a great 
deal about what one has always believed to be 
true about men and women, not just the things 
we learned at home and on the street, but the 
things we learned at graduate school as well. 
One of the marvels of Gilligan's writing is that it 
is powerfully effective, yet entirely free of rancor. 

Gilligan's work in this area began when she 
noticed recurrent problems in interpreting 
women's development and began to connect 
these problems to the repeated exclusion of 
women from critical theory-building studies of 
psychological research. These deficiencies are evi- 
dent in the work of such influential theorists as 
Freud and Erikson, and in the contributions of 
prominent empirical investigators such as 
Lawrence Kohlberg and Daniel Levinson, whose 
research is based on exclusively male popula- 
tions. In a vividly clear and virtuoso perfor- 
mance, Gilligan demonstrates that theories 
formerly considered to be sexually neutral in 
their scientific objectivity instead reflect a consis- 
tent observational and evaluative bias. Some of 
this, of course, is not entirely new, and Gilligan 
credits her predecessors with pointing to the 
gender bias in Freud and Erikson. Her analysis 
of the work of Kohlberg, in the realm of method 
as well as in theory building, is, however, unique 
and masterful. 

The book records different modes of thinking 
about relationships and the associations of these 



modes with the male and female voice in 
psychological and literary texts and in the data 
of Gilligan's own research. This includes a study 
of identity and moral development in the early 
adult years, a study of women as they dealt with 
decisions around abortion, and a study of the 
conceptions of self and morality in relation to 
rights and responsibilities in young adults. 

Her goal in all of this was to expand the 
understanding of human development "by using 
the groups left out of construction of theory, 
and to call attention to what is missing in its ac- 
count." Seen in this light, the discrepant data 
on women's experience provide a basis upon 
which to generate a new theory potentially 
yielding a more encompassing view of the lives 
of both sexes. The different voice Gilligan 
describes is characterized not by gender but by 
theme. The contrasts between male and female 
voices are presented to highlight a distinction 
between the two modes of thought and to focus 
on a problem of interpretation rather than to 
assert a generalization about either sex. Gilligan 
points to the interplay of these voices within 
each sex and suggests that their convergence 
marks times of crisis and change. 
Gilligan sees the origin of the gender differences 
she finds in her studies of young adults in the 
differential developmental experiences of boys 
and girls in early childhood. In this respect, she 
draws heavily on the work of recent feminist 
writers such as Nancy Chodorow (1974). 
Specifically, she draws on Chodorow's analysis 
of Robert Stoller's study (1964) of the origin of 
gender identity, in which she points out that 
female identity formation takes place in a con- 
text of ongoing relationships. Girls in identifying 
themselves as female experience themselves as 
like their mothers, "thus fusing the experience of 
attachment with the process of identity forma- 
tion" (p. 7). Male development entails "a more 
emphatic individuation and a more defensive 
forming of experienced ego boundaries." 
Chodorow argues that the existence of sex dif- 
ferences in the early experiences of individuation 
and relationship does not mean that women 
have 'weaker' ego boundaries than men, as 
Freud had suggested, but that girls emerge from 
this period with a basis for empathy built into 
their primary definition of self in a way that 
boys do not. For boys and men, separation and 
individuation are critically tied to gender identi- 
ty since separation from the mother is essential 
for the development of masculinity. For girls and 
women, the issue of feminine identity does not 
depend on the achievement of separation from 



the mother. As a consequence, male gender 
identity is threatened by intimacy while female 
gender identity is threatened by separation. 

This insight of Chodorow's is brilliantly applied 
by Gilligan to expose the gender bias in 
Erikson's developmental scheme. She calls atten- 
tion to Erikson's representation of adolescence as 
the celebration of the autonomous, initiating, in- 
dustrious self, forging an identity based on an 
ideology that can support and justify adult com- 
mitments, and asks the question, "About whom 
is Erikson talking?" She answers that once again 
it turns out to be the male child. She would 
agree that for men identity precedes intimacy 
and generativity in the life cycle, but insists that 
for women intimacy and identity are fused. The 
adolescent girl comes to know herself as she is 
known through her relationships to others. 

Gilligan proves to be as able a critic of research 
as she is of theory. Her critical analysis of the 
widely known work of Kohlberg, her mentor 
and colleague, may prove to be a classic of its 
kind, a tour de force that challenges the ac- 
cepted interpretations of the data. At the level 
of technique, for example, she calls attention to 
numerous problems. Kohlberg's method is to 
present a series of hypothetical moral dilemmas 
to children and then to assign levels of moral 
development according to the mode of thought 
or principle the children employ in deciding on 
a solution to the moral dilemma. The sequence 
of developmental stages established by Kohlberg 
is based entirely on a sample of boys. This, 
Gilligan points out, helps us to comprehend why 
it is that girls and women are consistently 
among the groups to fail to achieve the highest 
levels of the scale. In a detailed examination of 
the protocols of two eleven year olds, Amy and 
Jake, she points to several problems with the 
technique of interviewing, particularly the inter- 
viewer's failure to imagine a response "not 
dreamt of in Kohlberg's moral philosophy." 
What the interviewer takes to be an evasion of 
the dilemma signifies, according to Gilligan, a 
recognition of the problem and a search for a 
more adequate solution. "The two children see 
two different moral problems. The boy, a con- 
flict between life and property that can be 
resolved by logical deduction; the girl, a failure 
of human relationships that must be mended 
with its own thread." The eloquence of the 
language matches the brilliance of the thought. 
Elsewhere, harking back to yet another problem 
with Kohlberg's study, she observes that 
hypothetical dilemmas in the abstraction of their 
presentation of their individual lives and 
separate the moral problem from the social con- 
tingencies of its possible occurance (p. 100). 



Gilligan is eminently successful in her intention 
to restore some of the missing text of women's 
development. Her research strategy, which 
focuses on the differences between the accounts 
of men and women, truly enlarges the 
developmental understanding of both sexes. 
Gilligan argues persuasively that in the different 
voice of women lies the truth of an ethic of care, 
the tie between relationship and responsibility, 
and the origin of aggression in the failure of con- 
nection. The failure to see the different reality of 
women's lives and to hear the difference in their 
voices stems in part from the assumption that 
there is a single mode of social experience and 
interpretation. If we posit instead, says Gilligan, 
two different modes, we arrive at a more com- 
plex and more accurate rendition of human ex- 
perience. Gilligan's own voice is clear, sure and 
compelling, a voice that cannot be ignored. 

References 

Chodorow, N., Family Structure and Feminine 
Personality, in M.Z. Rosaldo and L. Lamphere, 
eds., Women, Culture and Society, Stanford 
University Press, 1974. 

Stoller, R.J., Contribution to the Study of 
Gender Identity, International Journal of 
Psychoanalysis, 1964, 45, 220-226. 




LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 



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ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Dunham/Nikolich 

Communications. Inc. _ 



15 Spinning Wheel Rd., Suite 1403 
Hinsdale, Illinois 60521 



312/986-5606 



EXOTIC, AEWENTCORGOS ESCAPES ON *mP 
FDR WOMEN WBO WANT MORE THAN HCH-DREM VACATIONS 



Horseback riding through the Canadian Rockies, backpacking through the 
crags above Santa Fe, a hike by llama across the Blue Ridge Mountains. . .even 
exotic camelback explorations through Kenya are available this year 
exclusively for "women over thirty" by Rainbow Adventures, Inc., 1308 Sherman 
Ave., Evanston, II., 60201. 




14th Annual International Women's 
Writing Guild Conference 



A 

^W ^^ * close to 50 workshops 

1 f * special seminar with Gabriele Rico, 

author of Writing the Natural Way 

The International Women's Writing Guild, a pioneer in fostering writing for both personal as well as professional 
growth, and renowned for its high energy writing conferences, announces its 14th annual writing conference at Skid- 
more College in Saratoga Springs. N.Y.. July 26 - August 4, 1985. 



"An alliance and network of women connected to the written word" Box 810, Grade Station, New York. N Y 10028 

'212) RE 7-7536 



Hannelore Hahn. 
Executive Director & Founder 



FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE FOR IN 

FREEHAND 

for WOMEN WRITERS and PHOTOGRAPHERS 



Contact 



OLGA BROUMAS 
MARIAN ROTH 
RITA SPEICHER 



P.O. BOX 806 

Prov incetown , MA 02657 

617-487-3579 



FREEHAND, INC., for women writers and photographers, is accepting applications 
from students for its fourth year beginning October, 1985. FREEHAND was 
developed out of the seven years of experience, spirit and tradition of the 
Women's Writer's Center, Inc. Motivated by the need and desire to transform 
and expand what was practiced in those years, we created FREEHAND in 
Provincetown , MA, an environment saturated with radical artistic history 
and a vibrant community of contemporary artists. 



ONAL 
DIES 




THE 

WOMEN 

IN 



985 Sum ^Programs 

Mijfcjqf-June 24, 1 985 
Kenya l^mJL ' 

Israel July ||-August 1 5, 1 985 



.he Institute's courses are taught by an 
international faculty. 

In the summer of 1985, the Institute will 
conduct three programs: 



Greece; 


May 30 - 


- June 24 


Kenya ; 


June 20 


- July 22 


Israel : 


July 22 


-- August 15 



For further information, please contact: 

International Women's Studies Institute 
1230 Grant Avenue, Box 601 
San Francisco, CA 94133 
(Tel.: 415-931-6973) 





E D I T O R 'S COLUMN 





WHATEVER HAPPENED TO 
THE CREATIVE WOMAN? 

Loyal subscribers and faithful librarians have 
written to us in recent months with the question 
of lost issues, requests for missing copies, and 
concerns about mail delivery. Can it be that our 
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dependable phenomena in modern life? No one 
has asked us if we've gone out of business. The 
fact is that the delays due to staff changes, 
technological progress and competing demands 
on the time of busy people have combined to 
put us behind schedule. This issue ought to have 
been the Spring-Summer 1984 issue. To get back 
on schedule again, we have decided to date it 
appropriately: Winter 1985. Of course, it is 
Volume 7 Number 2, and each subscriber will 
receive a full volume of issues for each year's 
subscription. We ask your patience and 
forebearance and promise to deliver your issues 
in good time. In another effort to make the 
magazine realistically identified, the number of 
issues per volume is under consideration; three a 
year is more feasible than four and will also be 
tied to our trimester academic calendar at 
Governors State University. Shall we adopt the 
designation of that esteemed publication, Tri- 
quarterly, and produce issues in Winter, Spring- 
Summer, and Fall of each year? We think our 
subscribers would prefer to get three issues a 
year, and get them on time, and will be happy 
to hear from our readers on this matter. 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF WOMEN IN 
THE ARTS - LANDMARK EVENT 
MAKES ART HISTORY IN 1986 

Susan Casteras, renowned art historian at Yale 
University, will be the Acting Director of a 
serious new museum of women's art to open in 
Washington, D.C. in 1986. This inspired idea 
will lead to the exhibition of outstanding ex- 
amples of painting, sculpture, graphic arts, 
photography, textiles and decorative art by 
women encompassing four centuries of magnifi- 
cant work that has been neglected or ignored. A 
Renaissance revival landmark building at 13th 
and New York Avenues in downtown 
Washington will house the permanent collection. 
Wilhelmina Holladay and her husband collected 
the core of the works, one hundred pieces rang- 
ing from 16th-century Italian to 20th-century 
American, and intended to donate the collection 
to a women's college. But the influence of Ann 
Sutherland Harris, art history professor at the 



University of Pittsburgh, who told them "If you 
had a whole museum filled with fabulous works 
of art by women, it would be hard to ignore", 
lead the Holladays to envision the new facility. 
Three philanthropists— all women— donated $1.5 
million as a down payment on the new building, 
and more than $8 million has been raised so far. 

We greet the new museum enthusiastically as an 
institution whose time has come. The days are 
over when a definitive "History of Art" such as 
Henry Janson's can omit mention of any female 
artist— not Mary Cassatt! not Rosa 
Bonheur!— not one. 

To become a Charter Member of the most im- 
portant new art museum in America today, 
write to: 

The National Museum of Women in the Arts, 
4590 MacArthur Boulevard, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 20007 




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A SALUTE TO A SISTER PUBLICATION 

Sing Heavenly Muse! published in St. Paul, Min- 
nesota, is one of several feminist journals that 
(like TCW) first appeared in 1977. Recipient of 



various awards and prizes, Sing Heavenly Muse! 
publishes two issues a year. Their statement of 
editorial policy resonates with our self-perceived 
mission and we are pleased to reproduce it here 
as a tribute to women who are working in close 
parallel with us. 

"Sing Heavenly Muse! was founded in 1977 to 
foster the work of women poets, fiction writers 
and artists and to recognize women's diversity, 
intelligence and talent, as well as their need to 
share perspectives. The journal is feminist in an 
open, generous sense: we encourage women to 
range freely, honestly, and imaginatively over all 
subjects, philosophies, and styles. We do not 
wish to confine women to 'women's subjects', 
whether these are defined traditionally, in terms 
of femininity and domesticity, or modernly, from 
a sometimes narrow polemical perspective. We 
look for explorations, questions that do not 
come with ready-made answers, emotionally or 
intellectually; and we welcome men's work that 
shows an awareness of women's consciousness." 

Sing Heavenly Muse! can be ordered from 
Bookslinger, 213 E. Fourth St., St. Paul, Min- 
nesota 55101, at $9 for two issues. 

A WOMEN'S NIGHT AT THE OPERA 




Women in the Performing Arts is a Chicago bas- 
ed organization to help women participate in a 
networking process of job-finding, casting, con- 
necting with others in theatre, dance, music and 
film. In May they threw a fund-raising event 
that was a significant cultural event for this 
city— a splendid performance of The Mother of 
Us All produced by the Chicago Opera Theatre. 
Your editor tooled up to the Athenaeum 
Theatre on the Northside to witness this 
magnificant performance. Donal Henahan wrote 



in The New York Times, "Few partnerships bet- 
ween composer and poet have been so nearly 
ideal." He was describing the collaboration of 
Virgil Thompson who wrote the witty, many- 
layered score and Gertrude Stein who wrote the 
vivid, passionate, lyrical and forceful libretto. It 
is all- American in flavor with its echoes of old 
hymns, folk songs and popular tunes. Stein has 
placed Susan B. Anthony and her crusade for 
women's suffrage in counterpoint to Daniel 
Webster, John Quincy Adams, Ulysses S. Grant 
and Lillian Russell. It was exciting and fresh, we 
laughed and cried, and felt profoundly ex- 
hilarated as we walked out of this modern classic 
of musical drama into the changed city streets. 

To join Women in the Performing Arts, write to 
Diane Rock or Barbara King, 1143 Williamsburg 
Drive, Northbrook, IL 60062. (312-498-4304) 

ONE POEM CAN BE WORTH $1,000 

The American Poetry Association annually 
awards prizes totalling $2500. In their nation- 
wide Hearts on Fire contest, they received 
thousands of poems on love, proving that 
romantic love is healthy and flourishing with 
happy celebrations outnumbering forlorn loss by 
two to one. Lifelong married love was a major 
theme. We are proud to announce that our con- 
tributor, Loralee F. Castner of Oakland, Califor- 
nia, received Honorable Mention for her poem 
"For My Husband''. 

Castner poems, "En Route" and "At the Edge of 
Love" appeared in our Volume 7, Number 1. 

To inquire about future contests, write to 
American Poetry Association, 1620 Seabright 
Avenue, P.O. Box 2279, Santa Cruz, California 
95063. Telephone: (408) 429-1122 

OUR CANDIDATE/OURSELVES 

What has Geraldine Ferraro's trailblazing cam- 
paign meant to American women? Time, in 
reporting on her impact, quoted Lee Csanad, in 
Cleveland, saying "Her nomination is the first 
thing that has ever made me feel I was included 
in this country. And let me tell you something I 
hadn't even realized until today— her candidacy 
has already changed my life." The tremendous 
surge of pride that swept through the conven- 
tion hall in San Francisco touched women's lives 
all over the country in a way no other politician 
has. Jane O'Reilly, writing in Time, explained, 
"Women, especially women seeking public office, 
have been allowed a very narrow range of accep- 
table behavior. A woman candidate must be 
neither too sexy, nor too severe, too young nor 
too old. Her voice must be modulated into an 



aural approximation of the dress-for-success suit. 
Otherwise she will be thought— God forbid— too 
aggressive. She must seem tough enough to 
stand up to the Soviets without being tough 
enough to frighten Freud." As we watched her 
walking this tightrope through the campaign, 
the debate, the crises, we identified with her and 
resonated with her in a way that crossed party 
lines. Geraldine Ferraro proclaimed, "I am glad 
there is no longer a sign, 'White Males Only 
Need Apply.' It's our time, folks." Susan B. An- 
thony would have been proud. American 
politics will never be the same again. 

H.E.H. 




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